Introduction Higher education creates a demanding but rewarding environment in which individuals can realize their creative and intellectual potential. Higher education equips people with the necessary knowledge, skills and values to play a wide range of social roles and to become effective citizens. Through research and the production of knowledge, higher education provides a society with the capacity to innovate, adapt and advance.
Introduction There is a high correlation, globally, between excellent higher education and overall national achievements in development, growth, competitiveness and welfare. There is a lot written about the issue of quality and excellence in Higher Education. The words excellence and quality in Higher Education convey the same meaning and the varying definitions reveal the different ways in which these two concepts can be seen. There are four conventional views of excellence in collegiate quality. These are :
Views of Excellence Excellence as Excellence as Resources Content Outcome Reputation
Introduction There are a number of definitions for Excellence in H.E. One definition views the most excellence institutions as those who have the greatest impact or add the most value on: The students knowledge and personal development The faculty members scholarly and pedagogical ability and productivity This definition focuses on results. It asks the questions, what difference did the institute make in student knowledge, skill and attitude? A more recent definition for educational quality is: Quality is conformance to mission specification and goal achievement – within publicly accepted standards of accountability and integrity
Characteristics of Excellence : Characteristics of Excellence in Higher Education include: A mission appropriate to Higher Education Well defined and appropriate goals Established conditions and procedures under which the mission and goals can be realized
Characteristics of Excellence : Characteristics of Excellence in Higher Education Continue: Assessment of both institutional effectiveness and student learning outcomes and the use of results for improvement Substantial accomplishment of mission and goals The support needed to continue to accomplish mission and goals Meeting the eligibility requirement and standards of accreditation bodies.
Measure of Excellence (quality) Several questions associate with the measurement of quality: What evidence or indicators are acceptable as appropriate operational expressions of quality? What evidence should be assembled to reflect the performance and quality of institutions that have diverse mission, history and environment? Hence, the evidence of quality (Excellence) at H.E. Institutions requires more than one data point.
Measure of Excellence (quality) Cont. The following indicators could be used as evidence of collegiate quality: 1.Peer reviews as expressed in accreditation and program reviews. 2.Students and alumni opinion and satisfaction indices. 3.Reputation and ranking studies. 4.Students performance profiles on entrance and exit tests. 5.Professional licensure results. 6.Faculty research and publication productivity
Quality Assurance Quality Assurance Instruments in Higher Education include: Accreditation : The test of goal achievement and improvement Ranking and Ratings : The test of reputation Outcomes : The test of results Licensure : The test of professional standards Program reviews : The test of Peer Review Follow-up studies : The test of client satisfaction Total quality management : The test of continuous improvement
Pursuing Excellence Fundamental Challenges in Pursuing Excellence in Higher Education include: Broadening public appreciation for the work of the academy Increasing the understanding of the needs of workplaces Becoming more effective learning organizations Integrating assessment, planning, and improvement Enhancing collaboration and community Recognizing that everyone in the institution is a teacher Devoting more attention and resources to leadership More broadly framing vision of excellence
Pursuing Excellence Where to Start? Organizational Checklist The checklist is a supplement to Excellence in Higher Education. Provides an introduction to excellence in Higher Education. Provides starting point for discussion and systematic self-assessment using the Excellency in Higher Education model. It covers 7 dimensions of organizational functioning that are critical in Higher Education.
Organizational Checklist Cont. The seven dimensions are: Leadership Strategic Planning External Focus Information and Analysis Faculty/Staff workplace focus Process Effectiveness Outcomes and Achievements
Case Study : KFUPM KFUPM has established a number of programs and practices towards excellence assurance in its education. These include: Preparatory-Year Program Program Assessment Accreditation Self-Assessment Quality Management and Planning Strategic Planning Performance Measures and Indictors
Case Study : KFUPM Cont. Academic Development : Faculty Development Program e-Learning Student Programs Research Institute Dhahran Technovalley
Accreditation: Accreditation has a long and rich history as a quality assurance instrument It remains the best known signal and perhaps the most effective instrument for nurturing and guaranteeing collegiate quality Impressive number of organizations and agencies place credence in the concept of accreditation During its eighty years history, accreditation has undergone changes in philosophy and process that parallel and accommodate changes in society and in Higher Education. Next Slide
Accreditation: Cont. The two benefits of accreditation that considered to be most fundamental are to: ensure the quality assist in the improvement of the program Currently, accreditation places great importance on goal formulation and attainment, a heavier emphasis on results obtained than on meeting externally prescribed standards and criteria. Several issues and problems still surround the accreditation process such as increasing costs of obtaining and maintaining accredited status.
Ranking Most Higher Education Institutions are concerned with both the perception and the reality of quality. Hence, they are concerned with the ranking and rating they receive. Ranking is another instrument for judging the relative quality of Higher Education institutions. Next Slide
Objectives of an Educational Ranking To compare institutions, programs or individuals benchmarking To learn in order to improve To identify areas for improvement Next Slide
Ranking Cont. Categories of indicators used by 3 different ranking bodies U.S. NewsShanghai Jiao Tong Univ.The Times 1.Peer Assessment (25 %) Alumni of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals (10%) Peer Review (40%) 2. Retention (20%)Staff of an institution winning Nobel Prizes and Fields Medals (40%) Int. faculty (5%) 3. Faculty Resources (20%)Highly cited researchers in (40%)Intl. Student (5%) 4. Student selectivity (15%)Quality of education (Indicators above divided by size of staff, (20%) Faculty/Student Ratio (20%) 5. Financial Resources (10%)Articles in Science Citation Index-expanded and Social Science Citation Index (20%) Citations per Faculty (20%) 6. Graduation Rate Performance (5%) Academic performance with respect of the size of an institution (10 %) recruiter review by employers (10% ) 7. Alumni giving rate (5%) Next Slide
2005 rank 2004 rank NameCountry Peer review score (40%) Recruiter review (10%) Int'l faculty score (5%) Int'l students score (5%) Faculty/ student score (20%) Citations/ faculty score(20 %) 11Harvard University US100 17232157 23Massachuset ts Institute of Technology US848712411653 36Cambridge University UK967365342016 45Oxford University UK937058372315 57Stanford University US789510301256 Next Slide
World Rank Institution*Region Regional Rank Country Nation al Rank Score on Alumn i Score on Award Scor e on HiCi Sco re on N&S Sco re on SCI Score on Size 1Harvard UnivAmericas1USA1100 73.6 2 Univ Univ Cambridge Europe1UK196.391.553.859.5 67. 1 66.5 301-400 Utah State Univ Americas138-164USA 119- 140 007.713.7 23. 9 14.1 301-400 Vienna Tech Univ Europe123-171Austria4-500014.6 29. 2 14.9 401-500Boston CollAmericas165-196USA 141- 167 007.7 22. 5 13.1 401-500Brunel UnivEurope172-207UK38-430010.90 23. 1 23.7 Next Slide
Criticism of SJT rankings Almost entirely Science and Engineering based Weights are arbitrary Relevance of the elements to quality can be questioned BUT It is global in scope All the elements are quantifiableyou can target many of these objectives (e.g. citations and publications) Next Slide
Criticisms of THES Heavy reliance on subjective judgments Are these the right measures? Are these the right weights? BUT Emphasis on peer judgment International elements included Importance of faculty productivity
Follow-up Studies Follow-up Studies provide a tool for seeking feedback from customer of Higher Education( the students). Follow-up Studies remain a key element in any effective program of quality assurance. The primary focus of follow-up Studies is on the perceptions and satisfaction of the student. Next Slide
Follow-up Studies There are a number of surveys available for use by Higher Education institutions for seeking student feedback. These include: The alumni survey The student opinion survey The survey of academic advising The survey of current activities and plans
Licensure Licensure is a form of quality assurance that is relatively unnoticed as mean to evaluate program quality. When students find out their college preparation program has enabled them to attain licensure easily, they may assign their success to the quality of preparation program.
Academic Program Reviews and Audit Academic program review is a comprehensive evaluation of a curriculum leading to a degree. The purpose of review/evaluation is to : start or implement a new program assess the quality of an existing program revise or discontinue an existing program ascertain resource needs Next Slide
Academic Program Reviews The evaluators include: External and/or internal Peer evaluators Currently enrolled students Alumni Advisory panels Deans or other administrators Next Slide
Academic Audit Academic audit is an instrument of quality assurance Academic audit enjoyed extensive application in the United Kingdom, Europe and Asia. Academic audit accents the improvement of student learning by examination and evaluation of an institutions or programs process of quality assurance. Academic audit an unlike accreditation or assessment, make no attempt to comprehensively review programs resources or activities nor to directly assess the quality of teaching or learning
Outcomes College outcomes in terms of student outcomes, center on student growth in knowledge, in skills, in attitudes and in values. The focus of higher educations obligation in terms of accountability, evolved from one primary focused on the means of education to one focused on the ends of education. A number of current institutional and commercial instruments are available for assessing college outcomes such as the California Test of Critical Thinking. The concern in assessing outcomes is whether a given assessment instrument or approach matches the outcomes desired. The impact of college education on the students is measured by assessing the college outcomes.
Total Quality management (TQM) TQM is a philosophy and a technique that emerged primarily in manufacturing organization and then was transferred to Higher Education. There are important and critical differences between corporate and collegiate settings concepts of students as customer. If TQM causes Higher Education to listen more attentively to the needs and hopes of students, then it makes an important contribution. But, if the concept of quality resides only in the students satisfaction, then TQM has done Higher Education a major disservice. Next Slide
Total Quality management (TQM) Cont. This concept ignores or dismisses the students responsibilities for reflection, imagination and initiative in the educational process. The TQM centers on continuous improvement, but Higher Education looks for new ideas and understanding as well. TQM has made useful conceptual contribution to the way in which people think about quality assurance in Higher Education. There is still constructive promise in TQM philosophy and methods
General English Preparatory Year Program Study Skills Computer Skills General English Physical Science Preparatory Year Program
To assure the quality of offered programs and their outcome by an independent body. This will help in: Recognition of the awarded degree by international bodies. Students potential in transferring to other institutions. Graduates being admitted to graduate programs in other international institutions. Increases the graduates potentials in job market ACCREDITATION 10 b Next Slide
History of Assessment & Accreditation at KFUPM YearOrganizationBody Assessed 1993 Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) College of Engineering Sciences, College of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Architecture Engineering and Construction Engineering & Management Department 1996 Berkley TeamCollege of Sciences 1997 United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Research Institute 2001 ABETCollege of Engineering Sciences, College of Computer Sciences & Engineering, Architecture Engineering and Construction Engineering & Management Department 2002 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) College of Industrial Management 2003 Self-Assessment (7 Programs) Program Assessment, Deanship of Academic Development 2005 Self-Assessment 11 Programs Program Assessment, Deanship of Academic Development
Self Assessment Promote the culture of assessment university-wide Improve and maintain the highest academic standards at KFUPM Enhance students learning outcomes Provide feedback for quality assurance of academic programs Prepare the academic programs for national/international accreditation Next Slide
Graduates that Perform Outcomes that Achieve Educational Objectives Processing & Delivery Input Output Assessment Model Assessment / Feedback Curriculum Faculty Laboratories Computing Facilities Processes Institutional Facilities Institutional Support
Strategic Planning Methodology Strategic Planning based on strategic thinking approach has been developed. All internal and external stake holders were engaging in the development. Strategic Planning action Plan consists of 24 projects. Next Slide
Major Directions And Strategic Goals Direction I Excellence in Education Direction II Excellence in Research Direction III University Standing & Reputation Direction IV Universitys Competitive Edge Direction V Rendering Services to Society Direction VI Caring of KFUPM Community 10 i Next Slide
Faculty Development Program The program fosters an environment of continuous improvement and development at KFUPM. Assist faculty members to attain their highest potential in teaching and research. Improve students learning at KFUPM The Component of the program are shown next. 10 i Next Slide
Faculty Development Program International, national and KFUPM workshops and conferences. Peer consultation. Course coordination assignment. Teaching and learning grants. Mentoring. Teaching exchange program. Certification program. Teaching Research Workshops (DAD). Mentoring. Junior faculty grant. Industrial Experience. Summer Assignment. Activities Research
Excellence in e-Learning Highly available (24X7) e-learning infrastructure (WebCT, Authoring Tools, Wireless Network, Computer Labs, Smart Classrooms, …) Institutional commitment to the e-learning initiative supported by presidential vision and financial support. Annual budget (More than one million riyals) for developing online courses. The e-learning program supports the University mission to achieve excellence in teaching and learning through supporting students with web- based education. Programmatic approach to faculty training to cover all major aspects of online education. Incentives for faculty members to develop online material; Grants and Awards. Next Slide
Faculty buy-in of web-based education. Over 70% of undergraduate course enrollments is supported by web- courses. In this semester (061), there are more than 700 web-courses on WebCT. Commitment to high quality online education. Comprehensive courses are designed according to pedagogical principles. Standards for online courses Guidelines and Templates Systematic evaluation and feedback of online courses Challenging approach in developing comprehensive online courses. 42 online course grants to develop comprehensive online courses. (24 completed, 18 under development) Excellence in e-Learning Cont. Next Slide
International, national and KFUPM workshops and conferences. Peer consultation. Course coordination assignment. Teaching and learning grants. Mentoring. Teaching exchange program. Certification program. Teaching Faculty Development Program Research Workshops. Mentoring. Junior faculty grant. Industrial Experience. Summer Assignment. Activities Research
Student Programs Programs Personal Skills Program Gifted Students Program Next Slide
Life is too short and precious to spend 25 years in school memorizing facts and recipes for later real life. The University shall be an integral part of life, providing lasting experiences, while addressing realistic problems. Life is too short and precious to spend 25 years in school memorizing facts and recipes for later real life. The University shall be an integral part of life, providing lasting experiences, while addressing realistic problems. Next Slide
The most efficient way of education is to motivate the students, stimulate their curiosity - and the learning will follow by itself. The most efficient way of education is to motivate the students, stimulate their curiosity - and the learning will follow by itself. Next Slide
Lifetime Learning Critical Thinking - - - - - - Current Graduates Future Graduates Practical aptitude Entrepreneurship Communication & Behavioral skills Solution Synthesis ability Technical Competence Personal Skills Program The need for such a program? Next Slide
Personal Skills Program Cont. Developing students skills that is needed by job market Special events short courses, workshop Voluntary Community services International Computer Driving License, ICDL Academic Programs Next Slide
Personal Skills Program-cont. Study skills courses (Prep. year) English Courses Communication Skills (IAS) Other academic Courses (Senior Project, Summer Training etc) Training faculty members to infuse skills into courses Introducing the Skills into academic programs Next Slide
Gifted Students Program Attracting distinguished and gifted students from high school. Taking care of gifted students and developing their skills. Establishing criteria for selection of gifted students. Nomination by Faculty Members Students Nominate themselves Others Students GPA Results of high School, RAM I and RAM II Criteria
Dhahran Technology-Valley (DTV) Dhahran Technology-Valley (DTV) established by King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) in the year 2006. It is expected to contribute significantly to industrial research and development (R&D). The valley provides development, production, and marketing support services for innovation that originates from academic research, but under business environment. Next Slide
Dhahran Technology-Valley (DTV) The DTV consists of six entities, namely: DTV Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Science & Technology Center (SciTech) King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Science Park (KASP) Innovation Center Technical and Business Incubator Liaison Office Consultance Services Centre (CSC)
OutcomesMeasuresMethodIndicator Mission & vision Competent professionalsKnowledge Skills Values Exit exam Surveys (A, E, G) GPA Surveys (A, E, G) Co-op & Senior projects Surveys (A, E) Median score Satisfaction rate % with GPA > 2.5 Satisfaction rate Median score Satisfaction rate Leadership role in the development of the kingdom LeadershipSurveys (A, E) Graduates in high managerial positions Satisfaction rate Number of graduates in high positions within 10 years of graduation Entrepreneurs to lead socio- economic and technological development EntrepreneurshipGraduates initiating new businesses Number of graduates starting new businesses A: Alumni E: EmployerG: Graduating Students Performance Measures for Teaching & Learning Process Financial Teaching expenditureCostData collectionTeaching expenditure per successful credit hour Learning and development Professional developmentTeaching workshopsData collectionNumber of workshops/year % of faculty participating in teaching workshops Next Slide ProcessesOutcomesMeasuresMethodIndicator AdmissionQuality studentsQuality of incoming students Entrance exams High school results Prep-year results Median RAM 1 & RAM 2 scores Median high school percentage Prep-year program completion rate Faculty recruitment and development Quality facultyCurrency Faculty performance Faculty evaluationCurrency rate % faculty with excellent rating or better TeachingQuality teaching Quality students Teaching quality Student to faculty ratio Student success Program completion Data collection Median student evaluation Student to faculty ratio Student success rate Program completion rate Drop out rate
OutcomesMeasuresMethodIndicator Mission and vision Research that contributes to knowledge Journal publications Citations Books Data collection Number of journal publications/faculty/year Number of citations/faculty/year Number of books/faculty/year Research relevant to the needs of the kingdom Contract projects Journal papers addressing local needs Patents addressing local needs Client satisfaction Data collection Survey Number of contract projects % of journal publications addressing local problems Number of patents/faculty/year Satisfaction rate Innovative research Technological development Patents Technology projects Patents Developmental Projects Number of patents/faculty/year Number of projects/ year Performance Measures for Research ProcessesOutcomesMeasuresMethodIndicator Proposal approvalTimely approvalSatisfactionSurveySatisfaction rate Average approval cycle time Conference approvalTimely approvalSatisfactionSurveySatisfaction rate Admission Degree Completion Quality students High number of students Timely completion GPA Number of students Cycle time Median GPA after 2 semesters Graduate students to faculty ratio Average time to complete MS Average time to complete PhD Process Learning and development Professional development Conference attendance Exchange programs Sabbatical leave Number of seminars Number of workshops Data collection % faculty attending conferences % of participant in exchange programs Number of faculty on sabbatical leave per year Number of seminars Number of workshops per year Financial Research Expenditure Budget Data Collection % of budget allocated to research Total budget allocated to research IncomeAmount Data Collection Income generated from projects Next Slide
OutcomesMeasuresMethodIndicator Mission and vision Stimulating CampusLocal community satisfaction Social activities Students activities Seminars for students Survey Data collection Satisfaction rate Number of social activities per year Number of students activities per year % of students members of clubs per year Number of seminars for students Professional serviceShort courses Workshops Consulting Data collection Number of short courses per year Number of participants per year Number of consulting activities per year Out-reach programsMedia presence Public events Data collection Number of media activities (news & articles) Number of public events Performance Measures for Community Services. Process ProcessesOutcomesMeasuresMethodIndicator HousingServicesSatisfactionSurveySatisfaction rate MaintenanceServicesSatisfactionSurveySatisfaction rate SecurityServicesSatisfactionSurveySatisfaction rate ClinicServicesSatisfactionSurveySatisfaction rate Food ServicesServicesSatisfactionSurveySatisfaction rate SafetyServicesSatisfactionSurveySatisfaction rate Financial ExpenditureCostData CollectionAmount spent on community welfare Generated incomeIncomeData CollectionIncome generated from short courses Next Slide
OutcomesMeasuresMethodIndicator Missio n and vision Multi-cultural University Nationalities of students Nationalities of graduate students Nationalities of faculty Data collection Number of nationalities of undergraduate students Number of nationalities of graduate students Number of nationalities of faculty Image and repute Involvement in the editorial board of international journals Membership in international conferences committees Accredited programs Breakthroughs University public image Accreditatio n Surveys % of faculty members of the editorial board of international journal % of faculty members of international conferences committees % of accredited program by international bodies Number of breakthrough papers or patents. Rate of satisfaction and image level General Measures Next Slide
Key Performance Indicator Target Teaching & Learning Employer satisfaction rate with graduates High Alumni satisfaction rate High % students with GPA > 2.5 60 Student to faculty ratio 13 Student success rate 0.80 Program completion rate 0.9 % students on probation < 15 Research Number of journal publications/faculty/year 1.8 Number of citations/faculty/year in Science Citation Index journals 3.0 Graduate students to faculty ratio 2 Total budget allocated to research 5% increase/year Income generated from projects 10% increase/year Community Service Community satisfaction with campus environment High Number of short courses per year 100 Faculty satisfaction rate with services High Staff satisfaction rate with services High Students satisfaction rate with services High Targets for key performance indicators Next Slide
Key Performance Indicator Target KPI for 2004-05 Teaching & Learning Employer satisfaction rate with graduates High74.69% Alumni satisfaction rate High70.15% % students with GPA > 2.5 6031.57 Student to faculty ratio 1313.87 Student success rate 0.80 Program completion rate 0.90.85 % students on probation < 1533.95 Research Number of journal publications/faculty/year 1.81.23 Number of citations/faculty/year in Science Citation Index journals 3.01.94 Graduate students to faculty ratio 21.64 Total budget allocated to research 5% increase/yearSR 12,267,002.06 Income generated from projects 10% increase/yearSR 76,761,680.00 Communit y Service Community satisfaction with campus environment HighNot Available Number of short courses per year 10066 Faculty satisfaction rate with services HighSee Details Staff satisfaction rate with services HighSee Details Students satisfaction rate with services HighSee Details
Environment & Water Refining & Petrochemicals Petroleum & Minerals Engineering Research Communications & Computer Research Applied Physical Sciences Economics & Management Systems Administrative Support Research Institute Next Slide Research & Innovation Support Office
Annual Value of Projects Million SR Next Slide Research Institute (Cont.)
Publishing Activities Next Slide Research Institute (Cont.)
Intellectual Property Issued patents16 Patent applications under prosecution (Lawyer) 56 Total72 Research Institute (Cont.)
What is needed for being creative? Curiosity, questions, questions, … and searching for answers creative unrest What is needed for being creative?
Broad horizon Knowledge in several fields Interdisciplinary thinking Inspiration by analogies What is needed for being creative?
It is strongly Recommended that Professors, worked for at least a year in industry ! - Postdoctoral Employment - Sabbatical in Industry - Own Company It is strongly Recommended that Professors, worked for at least a year in industry ! - Postdoctoral Employment - Sabbatical in Industry - Own Company
Scientists and Engineers in Industry return regularly to the University ! - Sabbatical at a University - Continuing Education at University - Collaboration on Joint Projects - Bringing Experience in University Teaching Scientists and Engineers in Industry return regularly to the University ! - Sabbatical at a University - Continuing Education at University - Collaboration on Joint Projects - Bringing Experience in University Teaching
Continuing Education for Professionals and for the Public is a Joint Task of Industry and University Continuing Education for Professionals and for the Public is a Joint Task of Industry and University
Research is for the Benefit of Society Research is for the Benefit of Society
To succeed, we have to run faster every day To succeed, we have to run faster every day ! !
But – are we running in the proper direction ?? But – are we running in the proper direction ??
Excellence in Higher Education means that Higher Education Institutions can: create knowledge and spread it craft solutions to crucial social challenges add value in a way that only a higher education institution can. Excellence in Higher Education means the formation of responsible and innovative leaders with long-term vision, willing to serve society. Excellence in Higher Education means a society with the capacity to innovate, adapt and advance. Excellence in Higher Education means local industry with the capacity to compete globally Concluding Remarks
Those who know more are expected to accomplish more, earn more, and, in the end, to live a happier life. To succeed, we have to run faster every day. But – are we running in the proper direction?? Who will keep our boat afloat, Policy? Economy? Or Academic Community? Lets convert our academic institutions into radiating cultural centres with an impact on society! Lets be reminded that academic institutions alone can not solve major Global Problems. We also need Empathy, Compassion, and Foresight.