Presentation on theme: "Pork Quality A look at a new management option"— Presentation transcript:
1 Pork Quality A look at a new management option Dr. James BradfordDVM, MS, Dipl ABVPPfizer Animal Health
2 Today’s purposeBrief you on a new technology currently under FDA reviewReview the science behind the productGet your thoughtsDuring our time together today, I would like to:1) Give you a brief review of new technology that is currently under FDA review2) Review with you the aspects of the science behind this product, especially when it comes to animal behavior and care.3) I’d really like your feedback and hear your thoughts as to what questions we haven’t answered or topics we have not addressed.Confidential
3 What is the label claim?“… intended for temporary immunological castration (suppresses testicular function) to control boar taint in intact male pigs intended for slaughter.”Veterinary prescription product onlyClassified as a production toolFirst of its kind in the U.S.The label claim: “… intended for temporary immunological castration (suppresses testicular function) to control boar taint in intact male pigs intended for slaughter.”This product is only available by veterinary prescription. It is classified as a production tool and is the first of its kind in the United States.Confidential
4 What causes boar taint (off odor)? It’s the result of two naturally occurring substances, androstenone and skatole, which begin to accumulate in the fat tissue of intact male pigs as they enter pubertyAs you know, off-odor occurs naturally in male pigs. Two substances produced naturally by a mature male pig cause off-odor – androstenone and skatole. These substances begin to accumulate in the fat of male pigs as they enter puberty – around 22 weeks of age. Androstenone is produced by the testes of the pigs after puberty. Skatole is actually a byproduct of the protein tryptophan digesting in the hind gut. It is normally broken down by the liver in the pig. However, when testicles begin functioning, testicular steroids interfere with liver processing of skatole, which results in skatole accumulation in the fat of pigs as they mature. These substances can build up and become quite noticeable when pork is cooked. The odor is offensive to a large portion of the population with scents not ideal for pork chop.A U.S. study found that 1% to 3% of supposedly female and castrate pigs had detectable levels of off odor by either chemical or sensory assessment [Reference: Nederveldt H. et al. (2006). Occurrence of boar taint and taint compounds in back fat from pork carcasses in the U.S. Proceedings International Pig Veterinary Society (IPVS) Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark.]4
5 What options exist for managing off odor? NutritionEarly harvestGenetic selectionPhysical castrationCurrently, there are four primary ways to manage off-odor in pork:NutritionEarly harvestGenetic selectionPhysical castrationConfidential5
6 Managing off odor with nutrition Skatole levels can be decreased by using fermentable carbohydrates in pig dietsHowever, skatole can also be absorbed from manureOnly solves half the problem (doesn’t address androstenone)Skatole levels can be decreased by using fermentable carbohydrates in diets, but skatole can be absorbed from manure. Dirty pigs of any sex can accumulate high levels of skatole in fat. Plus, this only solves half of the off-odor problem, it does not address androstenone levels.Confidential6
7 Managing off odor with early harvest Harvesting prior to puberty is effectiveThere are significant disadvantages, including loss of total pig valueThe UK and Ireland practice early harvestAndrostenone levels are affected by sexual maturity, but harvest at lighter weights (before puberty) is not economical. Early harvest is a practice that is used in the UK and Ireland.ConfidentialConfidential7
8 Managing off odor with genetics Managing off odor by marker-assisted selection may be a future optionBut it’s probably years offMarker-assisted selection may be a future option for managing off-odor in pork, but we are not quite there yet.Confidential8
9 Managing off odor with physical castration Used with 95% of the male pig population globally for centuriesHighly efficaciousReduces aggressive male pig behaviorPhysical castration is the long-standing, traditional management tool that producers use to eliminate off-odor and reduce pig injuries through behavior control. It is currently used with 95% of the male pig population – and has been used for centuries. It is a very effective practice. Sensory evaluations prove its efficacy.Confidential9
10 What do we give up?All the natural growth advantages of raising an intact male pig:Better feed efficiencies1Improved growth performance1Greater yield of lean meat1Less mortality, morbidity2(Photo of barrow)Today, we raise gilts and barrows to get meat quality that’s acceptable to the consumer: Lean pork with no off-odor or taste. But we give up some natural growth advantage when we castrate male pigs at a young age. These advantages include:Better feed efficienciesImproved growth performanceGreater yield of lean meatAdditionally, there is a level of mortality and morbidity in pigs that have been physically castrated. While these levels are low (about 1.5%), we still think we could do better.Suster et al. Longitudinal DXA measurements demonstrate lifetime differences in lean and fat tissue deposition in individually penned and group-penned boars and barrows. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2006:57:Allison, J. The impact of physical castration on pig health. Proceedings of Pfizer International Swine Symposium. Ottawa, Canada. 2009:22-25.Confidential10
11 What if …We could keep all the natural growth advantages by raising intact male pigs… while still ensuring consumers the same high quality pork experience they enjoy today?But what if we could gain back all the growth advantages of an intact male pig while getting rid of unpleasant aroma and providing consumers with the same high quality pork experience they enjoy today?Confidential11
12 For the past 10 years there’s been an immunological product that has been doing just that, globally …For the past 10 years there’s been an immunological product that has been doing just that, globally …
13 Introducing ImprovacPfizer Animal Health markets a form of this technology globally called Improvac.
14 Approved in 57 countries, including the EU and Japan Improvac is currently registered in 57 countries and similar technology is under review in the United States.It has been used for more than 10 years in Australia and New Zealand.<2005Targeted for 201114
15 What is Improvac?A protein compound that uses the pig’s natural immune system to control the substances that can create off odor in porkTemporary affectAvailable by veterinary prescription onlyVaccine*Improvac is a protein compound that uses the pig’s natural immune system to control the substances that can create off odor in pork. It is administered by injection before puberty is complete. It’s affect is temporary. It is only available by veterinary prescription, which is why I am here today. This product is really important for your audience.Improvac is classified as a vaccine in most countries. However, it will not be classified as a vaccine in the United States. It will be the first of its kind in the United States.* The U.S. form of Improvac will not be classified as a vaccine.Confidential15
16 Improvac is NOT Chemical castration Hormone or growth promotant Studies have demonstrated the Improvac antigen has no intrinsic hormonal activity1A genetically modified productImprovac is not chemical castration, a growth hormone or a genetically modified product.If you hear these terms in the marketplace, please correct them.Clarke et al. Inherent food safety of a synthetic gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine for swine. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine. 2008:6:7-14.
17 How does this product work? Show video clip that describes how product works (from Improvac site)NOTE: Insert video clip on how Improvac works from:
18 What is the process?This product is given in two separate injections later in the finishing period. The product is applied in two separate injections in adult male pigs four to six weeks prior to harvest.18
19 How is it administered? VIDEO CLIP: Canadian video of administration NOTE: Show Canadian video of administration.
20 How does this product perform? How has this product performed in other countries?
21 Efficacy As effective as current practices 10 years of studies* show efficacy greater than 99%Pigs on the Improvac program have comparable performance to physical castrates. I’m leaving with you a packet of peer-reviewed studies that show its effectiveness. In 10 years of studies, efficacy has been show to be greater than 99%.* Refer to 55+ peer-reviewed studies showing its efficacy, safety and behavior results.Confidential21
22 Long-term damage to reputation of pork Risk of consumer complaints EfficacyIncidence of androstenone and skatole in fat tissue from intact male pigs. Nearly 50% had off odor (boar taint) above the sensory threshold.Long-term damage to reputation of porkRisk of consumer complaintsThis data is from CSL (Pfizer) using unpublished surveys in Australia and New Zealand. Using analytical methods to measure androstenone and skatole, the threshold concentrations, above which taint is highly likely to be detected, have been suggested to range between 0.5 to 1.0 µg/g fat for androstenone and 0.2 to 0.25 µg/g for skatole.In a recent large multinational research project funded by the European Union, the various member countries have recently agreed on 1.0 µg/g and 0.22 µg/g as the upper thresholds for androstenone and skatole respectively.Several published studies have shown that the worst off odors are associated with intact male pigs that have high concentrations of both androstenone and skatole. That is pork from intact male pigs in the upper right quarter of the graph or the SHADED area.In contrast, it has been shown that pork from intact male pigs with low levels of both androstenone and skatole (i.e. the lower left quarter) is in terms of odor and flavor the same as pork from female or castrate pigs.Not a problem22
23 Efficacy Male pigs on the IMPROVAC program (n=228) Confidential Improvac has a dramatic effect on reducing the concentration of both the major taint compounds – androstenone and skatole. Sensory studies have shown that pork from vaccinated boars in the bottom left quarter is the same in odor and flavor as pork from female pigs.Confidential
24 Safety Animal: No adverse effects in laboratory studies1 Worker: 25 million doses safely administered with only a few minor incidents(Vaccination photo)This product is an animal-friendly alternative to physical castration. Laboratory studies indicate that the product causes no adverse effects in blood chemistry, hematology profiles, behavior, appetite or general health of the pig. It also has been shown to have excellent safety for workers. On a global level, it has been administered to 25 million pigs with only a few minor safety incidents.Singayan-Fajardo et al. Effect of Improvac on the eating quality and acceptability of boar pork. In Proceedings 3rd Asian Pig Vet Society Congress. Wuhan, ChinaConfidential24
25 Human and food safety It’s safe1 No withdrawal time, globallyNo oral activityProduct is only active when given by injectionMore than 10 years of experience in Australia and New Zealand(Photo of people enjoying pork)Pork from this product has been shown to be safe for human consumption. It leaves not traces in pork that can effect people who eat the pork. On a global level, there is no withdrawal time. The product has no oral activity. It is only active when given by injection. It neither stimulates hormone secretion nor does it add hormones to the pig. It does not contain any genetically modified components. With more than 10 years of experience with the product in Australia and New Zealand and more than two years in South Africa, Brazil, Mexico and other countries, consumers around the world have benefited from the pork produced using this product.(NOTE TO REVIEWERS: We will leave AVMA staff with a packet of peer-reviewed studies that show Improvac’s safety.)Clarke et al. Inherent food safety of a synthetic gonadotropin releasing factor (GnRF) vaccine for swine. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine. 2008:6:7-14.Confidential25
26 Meat qualityIn 17 comparison studies, the pork quality was found to be the same as physical castrates or female pigspHDrip loss/leannessShear force/tendernessJuicinessColorBoarCastrateImprovacThe eating quality of pork from Improvac pigs is at least as high as pork from physical castrates or female pigs. In 17 comparison studies, the pork quality was found to be same as physical castrates.Confidential26
27 Feed conversion & sustainability Compared with barrows there is:Improvement in feed efficiency1,2Reduction in greenhouse gases, fecal waste3The use of this product to control off odor also helps lessen the environmental impact of pig production and contributes to sustainable pig farming. Improved feed conversion efficiency means less feed is consumed by male pigs. It also means less manure is produced, which means producers have to dispose of less waste. The product also contains no chemicals or microbiological agents that pose risks to the environment.The use of this product to control off odor also helps lessen the environmental impact of pig production and contributes to sustainable pig farming. Improved feed conversion efficiency means less feed is consumed by male pigs. It also means less manure is produced, which means producers have to dispose of less waste.Moore et al. Paylean® improves feed conversion efficiency of entire and immunocastrated male pigs In J.E. Paterson (Ed.), Manipulating Pig Production X. Proceedings biennial conference of the Australasian Pig Science Association. Christchurch, New ZealandDikeman, M. Effects of metabolic modifiers on carcass traits and meat quality. Meat Science. 2007: 77:Hennessy, M. Society benefits: The environment. Proceedings of Pfizer International Swine Symposium. Ottawa, Canada. 2009:62-64.Confidential27
28 Economic impact 8% to 10% increase in feed efficiency1 Increase in overall yield of lean pork28 pounds extra lean meat per carcassWith Improvac, there is an 8% to 10% increase in feed efficiency. There is also an increase in overall yield of lean pork, with approximately 8 pounds of extra lean meat per carcass.Crane, J. Improvac®: Product profile, safety and efficacy. Proceedings of Pfizer International Swine Symposium. Ottawa, Canada. 2009:9-17.McKeith et al. Impact of using vaccination with Improvac® rather than physical castration on the carcass characteristics of finishing male pigs. Proceedings International Congress Meat Science & Technology. Copenhagen, DenmarkConfidential
29 Animal behaviorAnimals have low aggression, reduced mounting compared to intact male pigs1Some signs of aggression occur at the onset of puberty22 weeks, 180 lbs.(Photo of sleeping pig/finisher stage)One of the biggest advantages of this product is its ability to reduce aggressive male behavior in intact male pigs. There is reduced mounting compared to intact male pigs. Some signs of aggression may occur at the onset of puberty (occurring at about 22 weeks of age when pigs are about 180 pounds). This occurs only for a short time.Dunshea, F. Impact of immunization against GnRF on growth performance of male pigs. Proceedings of Pfizer International Swine Symposium. Ottawa, Canada. 2009:17-34.Confidential29
30 Effect on the animal Decreases pre-weaning mortality1 Pigs maintain natural growth characteristics1One of the product’s main benefits is that it decreases pre-weaning mortality and animal welfare concerns associated with physical castration. One example is a meta-analysis of data conducted by Allison et al. (2009) that found an increase in percentage of piglets that died in surgically castrated piglets than in piglets treated with bio therapeutic product. Pigs on the Improvac program maintain natural growth characteristics.This product is used late in the finisher stage of production as it prevents testicular growth and activity. The growth and efficiency benefits of an intact male pig are still realized with this product.Allison, J. The impact of physical castration on pig health. Proceedings of Pfizer International Swine Symposium. Ottawa, Canada. 2009:22-25.Confidential30
31 Cronin et al. (2003) video monitoring study “The results of the experiment suggest that the social and feeding behaviors of immuno-castrated males at 21 weeks were similar to surgically-castrated males.Cronin et al. The effects of immuno- and surgical-castration on the behavior and consequently growth of group-housed, male finisher pigs. Applied Animal Behavior Science. 2003:81(2)”An experiment was conducted to compare behavior, in particular social and feeding behavior, and consequently growth performance of group-housed entire and castrated male pigs during the finisher stage of production. There were 3 treatments:entire males;immuno-castrated males, treated with Improvac® at 14 and 18 weeks of age; andsurgically-castrated males, castrated at 14-days oldThese groups were compared to assess whether castration affected feeding and social behaviors. Twelve groups of 15 male pigs were formed at 14 weeks of age. Pigs had ad libitum access to pelleted, commercial feed from two single space feeders per pen.Pig behavior and feeder utilization were compared during 24-hour periods at 17 and 21 weeks of age, using time-lapse video recording. At 17 weeks, entire males and immuno-castrated males were more active (P<0.05) than surgical-castrated males, but at 21 weeks there were no differences among the treatments.As expected, social behavior at 17 weeks was greater (P<0.01) for entire males and immuno-castrated than surgical-castrated males, but not at 21 weeks, when it was greater (P<0.01) for entire males than immuno- and surgical-castrated males.On both the observation occasions, the “sexually-active” treatments (entire males and immuno-castrated males at 17 weeks and entire males at 21 weeks of age) on average allocated about one-third of active time to feeding, whereas castrated males spent almost one-half of active time in the feeder, assumed to represent feeding behavior (P<0.05). At 23 weeks, there was a trend for entire males to be lighter (P=0.061) than immuno-castrated males, with surgical-castrated males in between (102.3, and 103.9kg). Thus, castration reduced social behavior and increased feeding behavior in group-housed finisher pigs. The results of the experiment also suggest that the social and feeding behaviors of immuno-castrated males at 21 weeks were similar to surgically-castrated males.
32 Baumgartner et al. (2010) video monitoring study “Housing of male pigs vaccinated against GnRF in single sex groups of 12 individuals does not increase behavioral problems in the fattening period compared with surgically castrated males.Baumgartner et al. The behavior of male fattening pigs following either surgical castration or vaccination with a GnRF vaccine. Applied Animal Behavior Science. 2010:124(1):”The objective of this study was to compare the behavior of male fattening pigs either surgically castrated without anaesthesia (T1) or vaccinated twice with a GnRF vaccine (T2). Data collection took place in a commercial German fattening unit. Each treatment comprised 8 groups of 12 pigs, housed in fattening pens with partially slatted floor and liquid feed provided three times a day.Data on postures were scored from 24-hour videos recorded in every week of the fattening period (16 weeks) using scan sampling with 5-minute intervals. Social behavior was analyzed in weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 15 and 16 by continuous behavior recording of focus animals in four blocks of 2 hours phased evenly during the day.Overall, during the whole fattening period, vaccinates (T2) were more active than surgical castrates (T1), indicated by a higher proportion of pigs standing (T1: 9.3%; T2: 10.74%; P<0.023). T2 animals showed a significant decrease in standing and an increase of sitting and lying after the second vaccination of Improvac. No significant effects of treatment on the total number of agonistic interactions (P=0.064) and on biting and fighting (P=0.151) were found.In T2 the prevalence of aggressive behaviors decreased after the second vaccination (P<0.001), which was not found in T1 during the same period. T2 animals showed a higher level of mounting behavior compared with T1 animals, but on a very low level. Treatment had no effect on the prevalence of play behavior and manipulating of pen mates. It is concluded that housing of male pigs vaccinated against GnRF in single sex groups of 12 individuals does not increase behavioral problems in the fattening period compared with surgically castrated males.
33 Fàbrega et al. (2010) video monitoring study “Results from this study indicate that some welfare aspects, such as a reduced aggression and mounting behavior, may be improved by vaccination against GnRH…Fàbrega et al. Effect of vaccination against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, using Improvac®, on growth performance, body composition, behavior and acute phase proteins. Livestock Science. 2010:132(1):53-59.”The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination against GnRH on performance traits, pig behavior and acute phase proteins. A total of 120 pigs (36 non-castrated males, NCM; 36 males to be vaccinated, IM; 24 castrated males, CM; and 24 females, FE) were controlled in groups of 12 in pens with feeding stations allowing the recording of individual feed intake.The two vaccinations (Improvac®) were applied at a mean age of 77 and 146 days. All pigs were individually weighed every 3 weeks from the mean ages of 74 to 176 days and back fat thickness and loin-muscle depth were also recorded ultrasonically.Twelve group-housed pigs for each treatment were video recorded during 2 consecutive days at weeks 9, 11, 20, 21, 23 and 25 of age to score the number of inactive or active pigs in each treatment group by scan sampling. Aggressive behavior by the feeder and away from the feeder, and mounting behavior was also scored by focal sampling. Blood samples from 12 NCM, 12 CM and 12 IM were taken to determine the concentration of circulating acute phase protein Pig-MAP at weeks 1, 2, 4, 11, 13, 21 and 25 of age.After slaughter, the number of skin lesions on the left half carcass was scored. When compared to castrated males, Improvac pigs had:Overall higher growth rate and daily feed intake compared to non-castrated males (P<0.05), whereas their feed conversion ratios did not differ significantly.Better feed conversion ratio (P<0.05), since their overall daily weight gain did not differ significantly, but Improvac pigs ate less.Final lean meat percentage of Improvac pigs and physical castrates was lower compared to that of non-castrated males (P<0.05).Activity, mounting and aggressive behavior of intact pigs was higher than in Improvac pigs after the second vaccination.The effects of vaccination were especially remarkable after the second dose, when the higher feed intake and lower activity of immuno-castrates compared to non-castrated males might result in higher final body weight and more fat. Results from this study indicate that some welfare aspects such as a reduced aggression and mounting behavior may be improved by vaccination against GnRH, together with productive benefits like adequate feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain.
34 Rydhmer et al. (2010)“After the second injection, immuno-castrated pigs showed less non-violent social and aggressive behaviors than entire male pigs of the same age.Rydhmera et al. Immuno-castration reduces aggressive and sexual behavior in male pigs.Animal. 2010:4:”The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, Improvac, in suppressing aggressive and sexual behavior of male pigs.136 pigs were assigned to three treatments:Entire male pigs (n = 64);Immuno-castration against GnRH (n = 48);Surgical castration (n = 24)Surgical castration was performed before the age of 1 week. Vaccination comprised two injections: the first injection was given 8 to 11 weeks before slaughter and the second injection 4 weeks before slaughter. After the second injection, immuno-castrated pigs showed less non-violent social and aggressive behaviors than entire male pigs of the same age. Mounting was reduced to the same low level as observed in surgically castrated pigs, and more immuno-castrated pigs were without skin lesions compared with entire male pigs.Pigs that received the second injection only 1 week before the observation day did not differ significantly in behavior from those that received the injection 3 weeks before the observation day. Thus, the behavior seems to change soon after the second injection and these changes remain until slaughter.
35 “ ” Zamaratskaia et al. (2008) Immuno-castrated pigs remained sexually inactive throughout the study.Zamaratskaia et al. Long-term effect of vaccination against gonadotropin-releasing hormone, using Improvac, on hormonal profile and behavior of male pigs. Animal Reproduction Science. 2008:108(1):37-48.”The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) vaccine, Improvac, on the levels of GnRH antibodies, testosterone, estrone sulphate(E1S) and androstenone, as well as skatole and indole in male pigs. Additionally, the long-term effect of immuno-castration on social and sexual behavior was studied.Male pigs were assigned to two treatment groups: a treatment group given two doses of Improvac (n=12) and a control group of entire male pigs (n=12). The pigs were kept either 16 or 22 weeks after vaccination. Blood samples were collected five or six times; prior to both first and second vaccination, then three or four times during the 16 or 22 week period after second vaccination.Immuno-castration significantly reduced levels of testosterone and E1S in plasma, and levels of androstenone in fat (P<0.001 for all). Skatole and indole levels in plasma and fat were also lower in immuno-castrated pigs than in entire male pigs. These effects lasted up to 22 weeks after the second vaccination.Testis weight and bulbourethral gland length were lower in immuno--castrated pigs at slaughter and these pigs showed less social, manipulating and aggressive behavior than entire male pigs. The immuno-castrated pigs remained sexually inactive throughout the study.
36 We want your thoughtsWe’d like to get this peer-reviewed research validated by U.S. animal behavior expertsWe’d like to get this peer-reviewed research validated by U.S. animal behavior experts.
37 Success Getting the product right is only half the equation Equally important is to get the process rightSuccessGetting the product right is only half the equation. Equally important is to get the process right.
38 What’s the quality assurance process? Unprecedented QA process in Brazil …Verified, certified processPrescription productAdministered only by trained personnelAdding traceability systemPfizer is employing an unprecedented quality assurance protocol to assure pork is no different from that in the market today. This slide outlines the quality assurance processes that are in place in Brazil. The process is a verified certified process. The product is available by veterinary prescription only. Furthermore, it can be administered only by trained personnel through a verified process. Workers must use safety injection equipment and wear protective clothing. Workers are certified to safely handle animals and administer product. The product also is tracked through Global Vet Link software.Confidential
39 What is the veterinarian’s role? Prescribe productVerification processCertification processAfter training is complete, vets invited to be part of application processVeterinarians play an important role in swine management systems and we value your input on our plans for this product.Veterinarians will be involved in the program every step of the way. Improvac is only available to producers if veterinarians prescribe it. In order to become certified, veterinarians have to go through training. Once verified and certified, they have the opportunity to become a part of the application process.AK: Slide 40 on vet's role --- is this for the US?? No clear to me and we need to be careful on this one as it varies by region. At a minimum, spell out "vet". . .Confidential
40 What if… Is this a viable option? We could have all the natural growth advantages by raising intact male pigsIs this a viable option?… while still ensuring consumers the same high quality pork experience they enjoy today?So do you think this is a viable option?Confidential40