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Regurgitant Systolic Murmurs Chapter 15 Are G. Talking, MD, FACC Instructor Patricia L. Thomas, MBA, RCIS.

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Presentation on theme: "Regurgitant Systolic Murmurs Chapter 15 Are G. Talking, MD, FACC Instructor Patricia L. Thomas, MBA, RCIS."— Presentation transcript:

1 Regurgitant Systolic Murmurs Chapter 15 Are G. Talking, MD, FACC Instructor Patricia L. Thomas, MBA, RCIS

2 Outline Mitral Regurgitation Tricuspid Regurgitation Ventricular Septal Defect Patent Ductus Arterious Acute Ventricular Septal Perforation Papillary Muscle Rupture Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome

3 Introduction Regurgitant Murmurs are caused by retrograde flow across AV valves TR heard at the lower left sternal border MR heard at the apex Holosystolic Murmurs suggest MR, TR, VSD’s

4 Chronic Mitral Regurgitation Continues as long as LV pressure > that of the enlarged LA Begins at S 1 and extend through S 2 Large high pitched, blowing holosystolic/pansystolic murmur

5 Acute Mitral Regurgitation Loud Grade IV or >, diamond shaped Pressure in the normal nondilated LA increases rapidly because of regurgitant flow in early systole and = LV pressure in late systole

6 Mitral Regurgitation Causes Rheumatic Heart Disease Papillary Muscle Dysfunction Mitral Valve Prolapse Rupture Chordae Tendineae Calcified mitral Annulus LV Dilatation

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10 Tricuspid Regurgitation The holosystolic murmur of MR engulfs A 2 but stops before P 2 whereas the murmur of TR persists through and engulfs P 2 Increases with inspiration (Carvallo sign) & does not radiate well to the axillary region

11 Mild TR –Infective Endocarditis seen with IV drug abuse may be mid-systolic of low intensity, heart only with inspiration –S4 may be present Advance TR –May not increase with inspiration or may be absent –Tricuspid honk or whoop (highly musical)

12 Causes Tricuspid Insufficiency is commonly secondary to dilatation of the right ventricle Severe Right Heart Failure secondary to mitral stenosis Pulmonary Heart Disease with pulmonary hypertension Congenital deformity (Epstein's Anomaly), Rheumatic Valve disease, or Infective Endocarditis Listen with the diaphragm of the stethoscope along the lower left sternal border (third interspace)

13 Ventricular Septal Defect Holosystolic, loud, & harsh; S 2 is loud & widely split; possible palpable thrill Begins with ventricular systole S 1, when the rise in LV pressure exceeds that of the RV & continues until S 2 when left ventricular pressure falls Listen with the diaphragm of the stethoscope from the mid-to lower left sternal border

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15 Patent Ductus Arteriosus –Continuous murmur Acute Ventricular Septal Perforation –Caused by acute MI –Loud short systolic murmur, grade IV –Listen with diaphragm of stethoscope Papillary Muscle Rupture –mid-to late systolic murmur, thrill –Listen with diaphragm for the stethoscope

16 Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome Mid-to-late systolic, late systolic, or holosystolic Moderate Prolapse –1/3 or ½ into systole & increases its intensity until A 2 –Valve is competent in early systole & prolapse in LA in late systole Severe Prolapse –Loud S 1, holosystolic murmur –Fusion of a click with S 1, Sound is louder Click –In < ½ of patients marks onset of the murmur “click murmur syndrome” Cause –Mitral insufficiency

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18 THE END OF CHAPTER 15 Tilkian, Ara MD Understanding Heart Sounds and Murmurs, Fourth Edition, W.B. Sunders Company. 2002, pp


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