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Presentation on theme: "PSY600: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS"— Presentation transcript:

Class 5-6: Anxiety Disorders Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Stress-Related Disorders

2 Anxiety/OCD/Stress Disorders
You must often rule out substances and/or other medical conditions to Dx these disorders Many substances and medical conditions can cause physiological or psychological Sx that look like anxiety Sx There must be clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning to Dx these disorders Avoidance of anxiety/fear-provoking objects or situations is often a key component of these disorders

3 Tx of Anxiety/OCD/Stress Disorders
Tx of these disorders will typically involve one or more of the following: Cognitive therapy – change distorted/faulty thinking Behavioral therapy – Exposure, often with response prevention Anxiety-reducing Bx training, such as relaxation training, meditation, distraction, biofeedback Medication Short-term Sx relief Longer-term Tx of disorder

4 Panic Attacks Panic Attack: An abrupt surge of intense fear or discomfort, in which the person experiences a variety of physiological and cognitive Sx. Unexpected – no obvious cue or trigger at the time of occurrence. Seemingly “out of the blue.” Expected - there is an obvious cue or trigger, e.g., phobic stimulus Panic Attacks can be used as a specifier for all DSM disorders. Use the phrase “with panic attacks” after name of disorder

5 Panic Attacks Panic Sx include: Increased heart rate /palpitations
Sweating Shaking Shortness of breath Chest pain Nausea Dizziness Numbness/tingling Derealization/depersonalization Fear of “going crazy” or dying

6 Panic Disorder Panic Disorder Recurrent unexpected Panic Attacks
At least 1 of the attacks has been followed by a month or more of at least 1 of the following Persistent worry about having more attacks or about the consequences of attacks Significant change in Bx related to the attacks

7 Tx of Panic Disorder Medical evaluation – physiological disorders, some serious, can cause panic-like Sx Psychotherapy – can be sufficient as sole Tx method CBT Change catastrophic and distorted thinking surrounding physical symptoms Relaxation training, meditation, distraction, interoceptive exposure Medication – usually not sufficient as sole Tx method Fast-acting anti-anxiety meds for Sx relief Benzodiazepines – Xanax, Klonopin, Valium Long-term anti-depressant therapy for Tx of underlying disorder SSRIs MAOIs Tricyclics

8 Phobias Marked fear or anxiety cued by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation Exposure almost invariably provokes an immediate anxiety response, possibly in the form of expected Panic Attacks Fear/anxiety is out of proportion to the actual danger posed and to the sociocultural context Stimulus is avoided or endured with intense anxiety Fear/anxiety/avoidance is persistent/lasts at least 6 months

9 Specific Phobia Code according to phobic stimulus Most Common Types
Animal Type Natural Environment Type (e.g., heights, storm, water) Blood-Injection-Injury Type Situational Type (e.g., airplanes, elevators, enclosed places) Other Type (e.g., fear of contracting an illness; in children: loud sounds, costumed characters)

10 Social Anxiety Disorder
Persistent fear of acting in a way that will be humiliating, embarrassing, or lead to rejection in 1 or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others If another medical condition is present, fear is not related to it (e.g., fear is not of trembling in a patient with Parkinson’s Disease) Specify if: Performance Only – fears are limited to public performance situations

11 Agoraphobia Agoraphobia: Anxiety about being in situations from which escape might be difficult or in which help may not be available in the event of having panic or other embarrassing/incapacitating Sx. Hx of Panic Attacks not required Fear is experienced about two or more of these situations: Public transportation Open spaces Enclosed places (where other people are present) Standing in line/being in a crowd Being outside the home alone

12 Behavioral Tx of Phobias
Exposure Therapy Systematic Desensitization Develop and implement anxiety hierarchy In vivo or imaginal Teach relaxation techniques and pair with exposure Location and pacing determined by nature and severity of fear and client characteristics Graduated Exposure Gradually increasing duration of exposure Flooding Intense and prolonged exposure to feared object Not all phobias or clients are appropriate for this approach Virtual Reality

13 Other Tx of Phobias Cognitive restructuring
Encourage expression of feelings, self-confidence, responsibility Attend to family/environmental issues that may impact phobia; possibly include a close associate in the Tx Cognitive aspects of Tx play a larger role in treating Social Anxiety Disorder Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy helps skills development

14 Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Excessive anxiety and worry most of the time for at least 6 months about a number of events or activities It is difficult to control the worry Anxiety/worry associated with 3 or more of the following: Restlessness or feeling on edge/keyed up Being easily fatigued Difficulty concentrating/mind going blank Irritability Muscle tension Sleep disturbance

15 Treatment of GAD CBT Acceptance & Commitment Therapy Medication
Cognitive restructuring Relaxation training Exposure Acceptance & Commitment Therapy Acceptance & awareness of thoughts and feelings Emotional detachment Identification of values -- work toward acting based on those Medication Fast-acting for Sx relief Long-term for Sx treatment Relapse after stopping meds is high

16 Other Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition Sx are physiologically caused by medical condition, not by knowledge of having medical condition Substance/Medication-Induced Anxiety Disorder Code based on substance involved and presence/absence of other substance use disorder Other Specified or Unspecified Anxiety Disorder Clear anxiety disorder, but full criteria not met for any specific one, For Specified, record reason with Dx “Other Specified Anxiety Disorder, limited symptom attacks”

17 Obsessions & Compulsions
Recurrent, persistent and intrusive thoughts, impulses or images that cause marked anxiety or distress Person attempts to ignore such thoughts or to neutralize them with some other thought or action Compulsions Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that the person feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be rigidly applied Behaviors are aimed at reducing distress or preventing some dreaded outcome, but are not realistically connected with what they are designed to prevent or are clearly excessive

18 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Obsessions and/or compulsions Sx cause marked distress, are time consuming, or significantly interfere with functioning Sx not better explained by another mental disorder Specify if: With good or fair insight – person recognizes that beliefs are not or may not be true With poor insight – person thinks beliefs probably true With absent insight/delusional beliefs -- person is completely convinced beliefs are true Tic-related – current or past tic disorder

19 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Typical OCD themes include: contamination/washing; doubt/checking; fear of harming oneself or others; symmetry/counting and arranging OCD is a chronic disorder that can be highly treatment resistant High degree of heritability Equally common in both genders: females onset more in adulthood, males more in childhood

20 Treatment of OCD OCD presents at a wide range of severity and disability. Exposure and response prevention Graduated exposure to obsessional cues and strict prevention of rituals Relaxation training may be used Cognitive therapy Challenge errors in thinking Medication SSRIs, tricyclics

21 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Exposure to actual or threatened death, serious injury, or sexual violence in one of following ways: For those older than 6 years: Direct experience Witnessing, in person, the event occurring to others Learning that the event occurred to a close family member or friend Experiencing related or extreme exposure to aversive details of the event(s) There are somewhat different criteria for children 6 years or younger.

22 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
One or more intrusion Sx, beginning after event One or more Sx indicating persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with event, beginning after event Two or more negative alterations in cognitions and mood associated with event, beginning or worsening after event Two or more marked alterations in arousal and reactivity associated with event, beginning or worsening after event

23 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Duration of disturbance is more than one month Rule out substances or other medical conditions Specify whether: With dissociative Sx Depersonalization Derealization Specify if: With delayed expression– if full criteria are not met for at least 6 months after the event

24 Treatment of PTSD Begin Tx as soon as possible after trauma, even before Sx emerge as a preventative measure Suicide evaluation Substance use evaluation Prolonged Exposure Exposure to memory of trauma on a hierarchical, scheduled basis Cognitive Processing Therapy Structured model combining exposure, cognitive restructuring, and anxiety management training Developed for sexual assault survivors Anxiety Management Training Pairing memory of trauma with relaxation, biofeedback, etc.

25 Treatment of PTSD Group/family therapy Medication
Support systems are vital to people with PTSD Group with people with similar experiences can be very helpful Family has likely been significantly impacted by PTSD Work on trust, communication skills Medication SSRIs most commonly used Help address anxiety, depression, sleep problems

26 Acute Stress Disorder Same exposure to traumatic event as with PTSD
Nine Sx related to intrusion, negative mood, dissociation, avoidance, and increased arousal Disturbance lasts for at least 3 days and no more than1 month after trauma exposure Rule out substances, another medical condition, and brief psychotic disorder.

27 Adjustment Disorder Development of emotional or behavioral Sx in response to an identifiable stressor Stressor can be of any severity, unlike PTSD Sx start within 3 months of onset of stressor and don’t last more than 6 months past end of stressor Distress in excess of what would be expected OR significant impairment in functioning Criteria are not met for another mental disorder, and is not an exacerbation of a pre-existing mental disorder Sx do not represent normal bereavement

28 Adjustment Disorder Specify whether: With Depressed Mood With Anxiety
With Mixed Anxiety and Depressed Mood With Disturbance of Conduct With Mixed Disturbance of Emotions and Conduct Unspecified Code according to nature of Sx

29 Differential Diagnosis
Panic Attacks can occur with all DSM-5 disorders – for Panic Disorder they must be present and unexpected Nature of fear/worry helps determine Dx: Panic Disorder – of having another attack or consequences of attack Agoraphobia – of having panic Sx in a place that cannot be escaped or where help cannot be obtained Specific Phobia – of a particular object or situation Social Anxiety Disorder– of being humiliated/rejected in front of others

30 Differential Diagnosis
Avoidant Personality Disorder may just be a more pervasive form of Social Anxiety Disorder. They can be hard to distinguish. Look at Hx. Negative self evaluation is more prominent with P/D. Anxiety/avoidant Bx is present in most social situations with P/D. Depressive ruminations are not obsessions because they are typically mood congruent, not experienced as intrusive or distressing, not linked to compulsions. OCD with delusional beliefs is not diagnosed as Delusional Disorder if obsessions and compulsions are clearly present

31 Differential Diagnosis
Compulsive-like Bx (gambling, substance abuse) is not OCD because those activities bring pleasure, at least while they’re being executed OCD and OCPD can be diagnosed in the same person, but they are not the same. No obsessions or compulsions with OCPD. OCD is often ego dystonic. Stressor with Adjustment Disorder can be anything the person feels was stressful to them; PTSD requires extreme stressor as defined in criteria PTSD can look like psychosis. Be aware of the whole profile.


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