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Historical biogeography KGA172 Space, Place and Nature Presented by Associate Professor Elaine Stratford Semester 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Historical biogeography KGA172 Space, Place and Nature Presented by Associate Professor Elaine Stratford Semester 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Historical biogeography KGA172 Space, Place and Nature Presented by Associate Professor Elaine Stratford Semester 2



4 Revising Lecture 2.9 1.Name and define six elements of ecosystem function. 2.What are the key differences between habitat and niche? In practical terms, why is it important to understand these differences? 3.Explain the concept ‘potential’ niche. How does that differ from ‘realized’ niche? 4.Name, describe and explain the interrelationships among three key limits on biota, providing examples for each. 5.Using light as your focus, describe and explain the interrelationships among growth, productivity and competition. 6.In what ways is water both an environmental condition and resource? 7.How and why is it important that environmental studies is an area of multi- [and even inter-] disciplinary study? A Woman Thinking

5 Learning Objectives Module 2 Lecture 10 be able to describe and explain a range of ideas and cite a range of examples to show understanding of: –biotic realms –relicts –continuous and disjunct distributions –centres of local endemism –pangeographic nodes –refugia KGA172 Know and be able to (a) employ basic geographical terminology and concepts, (b) find, evaluate, analyse and reference appropriate literature, (c) contribute to debates about development and sustainability Comprehend and be able to explain spatial patterns, generate basic maps, field sketches and graphs, and communicate in written and graphical forms Apply key academic skills and (a) engage in critical thinking, discussion and listening, and in self-reflection and reflection upon the viewpoints of others and (b) research, plan and conduct fieldwork to collect data Analyse and interpret basic spatial, numerical and qualitative information Synthesize and integrate knowledge of social and Earth systems

6 Textbook Reading Bergman and Renwick (2008) graze through parts of chapter 4.. Critical reading 1. What is the author’s purpose? 2. What key questions or problems does the author raise? 3. What information, data and evidence does the author present? 4. What key concepts does the author use to organize this information, this evidence? 5. What key conclusions is the author coming to? Are those conclusions justified? 6. What are the author’s primary assumptions? 7. What viewpoints is the author writing from? 8. What are the implications of the author’s reasoning? [from Foundation for Critical Thinking]Foundation for Critical Thinking Old Woman Reading a Lectionary, Gerard Dou


8 Kirkpatrick 1999

9 Biotic realms Relicts Continuous and disjunct distributions Centres of local endemism Pangeographic nodes Refugia

10 Joy Tivy (1982) Biogeography. 2nd ed. Longmans. Biotic realms

11 1.Boreal 2.Palaeo- tropical 3.Neo- tropical 4.Australian 5.Antarctic influence



14 Relicts


16 Continuous and disjunct distributions Joy Tivy (1982) Biogeography. 2 nd ed. Longmans.

17 Local endemism, pangeographic nodes, and refugia Myosotis de Bourbon, endemic to Reunion Island



20 Centres of local endemism

21 . Dispersal and migration Modes of dispersal and their effectiveness Active dispersal Flight, perambulation, swimming Passive dispersal wind, water, animal (endozoic and ectozoic)

22 Dispersal and migration Martin Kellman (1980). Plant Geography. 2 nd ed., Methuen.


24 Active dispersal (Slide modified from one by Dr Emma Pharo)

25 Perambulation

26 Swimming [Atlantic Salmon] (Adapted from slide by Dr Emma Pharo) Barry Kovish

27 Passive dispersal - wind

28 Passive dispersal - Water

29 Ectozoic and endozoic animal transport

30 Factors affecting the probability of migration and the theory of island biogeography

31 Theory of island biogeography Diagrams from McArthur and Wilson Theory of Island Biogeography

32 allele A allele B allele C Distribution of alleles at the Lgg locus Genetic groups within Geocrinia rosea Don Driscoll Roseate Froglet, Karri Froglet (Geocrinia rosea)

33 The Hawaiian islands are a chain of volcanoes some 4,000km from the nearest continental land mass. Shown are the central islands of Kahoolawe, Maui, Lanai, Molokai and Oahu, from lower right to upper left. Source: P McQuillan

34 Source: P McQuillan


36 The rates of immigration and extinction differ with island size. Hence the equilibrium number of species, or species richness (S) differs between large and small islands. Source: P McQuillan

37 (unknown) The breakdown of biotic realms and kingdoms

38 Buchanan Bush Regeneration

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