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Chapter 42 Opener. Concept 42.1 Ecological Systems Vary in Space and over Time Discuss the validity of the following statement: Ecological systems at.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 42 Opener. Concept 42.1 Ecological Systems Vary in Space and over Time Discuss the validity of the following statement: Ecological systems at."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 42 Opener

2 Concept 42.1 Ecological Systems Vary in Space and over Time Discuss the validity of the following statement: Ecological systems at the organism, population, community, and ecosystem scales differ from one another only with respect to geographic scale (size of land area or water volume involved).

3 Figure 42.1 The Hierarchy of Ecological Systems

4 Concept 42.1 Ecological Systems Vary in Space and over Time Ecological systems at the organism, population, community, and ecosystem scales differ from one another only with respect to geographic scale (size of land area or water volume involved). a.True b.False c.I don’t understand this question.

5 Figure 42.2 The Microbial Community of the Human Gut Depends on the Host’s Diet

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7 Figure 42.2 The Microbial Community of the Human Gut Depends on the Host’s Diet (Part 1)

8 Figure 42.2 The Microbial Community of the Human Gut Depends on the Host’s Diet (Part 2)

9 Concept 42.2 Climate and Topography Shape Earth’s Physical Environments High latitudes are cooler than low latitudes because as a result of Earth’s spherical shape, high latitudes are farther away from the sun than low latitudes. a.True b.False c.I don’t understand this question.

10 Concept 42.2 Climate and Topography Shape Earth’s Physical Environments Discuss the validity of the following statement: High latitudes are cooler than low latitudes because as a result of Earth’s spherical shape, high latitudes are farther away from the sun than low latitudes.

11 Figure 42.3 Solar Energy Input Varies with Latitude

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13 Concept 42.2 Climate and Topography Shape Earth’s Physical Environments Winter and summer seasons occur because Earth is farther from the sun in winter and closer to it in summer. a.True b.False c.I don’t understand the question.

14 Figure 42.4 The Tilt of Earth’s Axis of Rotation Causes the Seasons

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16 Concept 42.2 Climate and Topography Shape Earth’s Physical Environments Discuss the validity of the following statement: Winter and summer seasons occur because Earth is farther from the sun in winter and closer to it in summer.

17 Concept 42.2 Climate and Topography Shape Earth’s Physical Environments The direction of prevailing winds at Earth’s surface is determined solely by Hadley cell circulation in the atmosphere that results from latitudinal gradients in solar energy input. a.True b.False c.I don’t understand this question.

18 Concept 42.2 Climate and Topography Shape Earth’s Physical Environments Discuss the validity of the following statement: The direction of prevailing winds at Earth’s surface is determined solely by Hadley cell circulation in the atmosphere.

19 Figure 42.5 Global Atmospheric Circulation

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21 Figure 42.6 Direction of Prevailing Surface Winds

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23 Figure 42.7 Ocean Currents

24 Figure 42.8 Walter Climate Diagrams Summarize Climate in an Ecologically Relevant Way

25 Apply the Concept, Ch. 42, p. 829

26 Concept 42.2 Climate and Topography Shape Earth’s Physical Environments Why are tropical latitudes and mountaintops wet? a.As air rises, it cools. b.Liquid water evaporates as it is warmed and water vapor condenses as it is cooled. c.Both a and b are involved. d.Neither a nor b is involved. e.I don’t understand this question.

27 Figure 42.9 A Rain Shadow

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29 Concept 42.3 Physical Geography Provides the Template for Biogeography Comparing these two Walter climate diagrams showing rainforest in two different locations, we can see that a.the location depicted by diagram A is wetter in January than the location depicted in diagram B. b.location A has more seasonal variation than location B. c.location A is warmer than location B. d.All of the above e.None of the above

30 Concept 42.3 Physical Geography Provides the Template for Biogeography With a partner or discussion group, compare the two Walter climate diagrams below, which show rainforests in two different locations. Discuss their similarities and differences: Which is (a) wetter in January, (b) more seasonal, and (c) warmer? Discuss where on Earth you would expect to find these two different rainforest biomes. Do you think they would both be found in the Northern Hemisphere?

31 Concept 42.3 Physical Geography Provides the Template for Biogeography Temperate rainforest: Large amount of rainfall overall but more seasonal variation in both temperature and precipitation. Tropical rainforest: Generally warm and wet year-round.

32 Figure Temperature and Precipitation Gradients Determine Terrestrial Biomes

33 Figure Global Terrestrial Biomes

34 Figure Same Biome, Different Continents

35 Figure Same Biome, Different Continents (Part 1)

36 Figure Same Biome, Different Continents (Part 2)

37 Figure Same Biome, Different Continents (Part 3)

38 Figure Same Biome, Different Continents (Part 4)

39 Concept 42.4 Geological History Has Shaped the Distributions of Organisms Referring to the figure below, discuss the likelihood of finding closely related organisms in the following pairs of regions: Europe and Asia North and South America Africa and South America

40 Concept 42.4 Geological History Has Shaped the Distributions of Organisms Referring to the figure above, the likelihood of finding closely related organisms is greatest in which of the following pair of regions? a. Australia and New Zealand b. North and South America c. Africa and South America d. The likelihood is the same for each pair. e. I don’t understand this question.

41 Concept 42.3 Physical Geography Provides the Template for Biogeography Do the same set of factors determine characteristics of terrestrial and aquatic biomes? a.Yes b.No

42 Table 42.1 Major Aquatic Biomes

43 Figure Water-Depth Zones

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45 Figure Water-Depth Zones (Part 1)

46 Figure Water-Depth Zones (Part 2)

47 Alfred Russel Wallace proposed that a line (now known as Wallace’s line) separates two distinct faunal regions in Southeast Asia, between Bali and Lombok. Discuss the reasons for the faunal differences between these two islands. Concept 42.4 Geological History Has Shaped the Distributions of Organisms

48 Alfred Russel Wallace proposed that a line (now known as Wallace’s line) separates two distinct faunal regions in Southeast Asia, between Bali and Lombok. We now know that distinctive “line” is a boundary because of a. distance between the islands. b. depth of the ocean trench between the islands. c. climate differences. d. soil differences. e. All of the above Concept 42.4 Geological History Has Shaped the Distributions of Organisms

49 Figure Wallace’s Line

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51 Figure Movement of the Continents Shaped Earth’s Biogeographic Regions

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53 Figure Distribution of Nothofagus

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55 Figure Distribution of Nothofagus (Part 1)

56 Figure Distribution of Nothofagus (Part 2)

57 Apply the Concept, Ch. 42, p. 837

58 Figure Human Agricultural Practices Produce a Uniform Landscape

59 Figure Harmonious Grazers

60 Referring to Concept 42.5 of the textbook, which of the following human activities do you think are most strongly blurring biogeographic boundaries? a. The moving of organisms on purpose or by accident b. The clearing of land for agriculture c. The fragmentation of habitats d. I don’t understand this question. Concept 42.5 Human Activities Affect Ecological Systems on a Global Scale

61 One way to investigate the impacts of atmospheric greenhouse gases on Earth’s climate would be to have several Earths where we burn fossil fuels to increase atmospheric carbon dioxide, and several more Earths as controls where the atmospheric CO 2 composition is held constant. Why might modeling be a better way to assess the potential impacts of greenhouse gases on Earth’s climate? a. Models are useful in addressing complex problems. b. We only have one Earth, and no replicates or controls are available. c. Modeling allows us to predict effects of CO 2 on climate without having to wait for experimental results. d. An experiment that affected the whole planet might be difficult to get approved, very expensive, and might have undesirable or irreversible impacts. e. All of the above Concept 42.6 Ecological Investigation Depends on Natural History Knowledge and Modeling

62 Model PredictionsReal World Data Concept 42.6 Ecological Investigation Depends on Natural History Knowledge and Modeling


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