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Chapter 17 Culture and Personality Personality Psychology.

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1 Chapter 17 Culture and Personality Personality Psychology

2 Culture and Personality  Are concepts of personality that are prevalent in one culture also applicable in other cultures?  Do cultures differ in the levels of particular personality traits?  Does the factor structure of personality traits vary across cultures?  Are certain features of personality universal?

3 What is Culture? Humans everywhere show striking patterns of local within-group similarity in their behavior and thought, accompanied by profound intergroup differences

4 3 Goals of Cultural Personality Psychology Cultural Personality Psychology  To discover the principles underlying the cultural diversity  To discover how human psychology shapes culture  To discover how cultural understandings in turn shape our personality

5 3 Major Approaches to Culture  Evoked Culture  Transmitted Culture  Cultural Universals

6 Evoked Culture

7  Phenomena that are triggered in different ways by different environmental conditions  Universal underlying mechanism  Environmental differences

8 Evoked Culture Evoked Cooperation  High-variance conditions  Egalitarianism

9 Evoked Culture Evoked Mating Strategies Children in uncertain and unpredictable environments have a mating strategy marked by early reproduction Children from stable homes with predictability opt for a strategy of permanent mating

10 Evoked Culture Honors, Insults and Evoked Aggression “A Culture of Honor” How dare you insult me! Uh Oh

11 Transmitted Culture

12 Representations that exist originally in one person’s mind that are transmitted to other minds through observation or interaction with the original person

13 Transmitted Culture Cultural Differences in Moral Values  Transmitted to children early in life  Specific to particular cultures  May be cultural universals

14 Transmitted Culture Cultural Differences in Self-Concept  Self-concepts differ substantially from culture to culture  Interdependence/Independence  Individualism/Collectivism  Vertical-Horizontal Distinction

15 Transmitted Culture Cultural Differences in Self-Enhancement  The tendency to describe and present oneself using positive or socially valued attributes  Stable over time making them enduring personality features  Intragroup and Intergroup comparisons

16 Transmitted Culture Personality Variations Within Culture  Effects of Social Class  Effects of Historical Era

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18 Cultural Universals

19 The attempt to identify features of personality that appear to be universal These constitute the “human nature” level of analyzing personality

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21 Cultural Universals Personality Characteristics of Men and Women  Tremendous consensus across cultures of gender trait adjectives  May represent stereotypes  May reflect real sex differences

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23 Cultural Universals Emotional Expression

24 Cultural Universals Personality Evaluation  Are there universal personality descriptors?  Possibility of “dominance” and “warmth”

25 Cultural Universals Five-Factor Model Some personality psychologists believe that this model represents more than just ways of evaluating people; it represents universal dimensions along which individuals differ

26 Summary  Evoked Culture  Transmitted Culture  Cultural Universals


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