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1 Muddled Methodology – CALL in the classroom is not always communicative but it can be. Ian Brown ACL Sydney, Australia.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Muddled Methodology – CALL in the classroom is not always communicative but it can be. Ian Brown ACL Sydney, Australia."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Muddled Methodology – CALL in the classroom is not always communicative but it can be. Ian Brown ACL Sydney, Australia

3 2 Muddled methodology CLT Review Why Use CALL Elements of Successful CALL Communicative CALL Guidelines for the Teacher Student Centred Learning Considerations for a Lesson Pitfalls to using CALL Overcoming the Pitfalls Sample Procedure for a Communicative CALL lesson Examples Summary The Future

4 3 Muddled Methodology Good classroom teachers can adopt totally different practice in the computer room –Computer lessons are not planned –Linguistic goals are not clear –Computer classroom lessons are used as self access/free time –Computers are used as a methodology not as a tool for use with different methodologies –Technology controls the class not the teacher

5 4 Communicative Language Teaching Review learning to communicate through interaction in the language using authentic texts and materials learning about the learning process in addition to language contributing personal experiences in the classroom linking classroom learning to language use outside Nunan 1991

6 5 Communicative Language Teaching Review learner centred cooperative using whole language content centred task based Brown 1994 'weak' version 'strong' version Nunan 1993

7 6 Why Use CALL? experiential learning motivation enhanced student achievement authentic materials for study greater interaction individualisation independence from a single source of information global understanding Lee 2000 more fun promotes new ways of learning uses more senses for learning computer skills are an essential part of life today Palmer

8 7 Elements of Successful CALL Integration 'An aspect indispensable at any stage of CALL is the integration of the computer programs in teaching‘ Pilus 1995 The Teacher 'teacher-related factors were the most important in determining the success of CALL materials development'. Levy 1997 (Computer Competence)

9 8 Types of Communicative CALL Direct Chat List Message board Indirect Pair work Group Work Ongoing Projects

10 9 Communicative CALL ‘One of the main benefits of using CALL is the interaction at the computer: between student and student, student and teacher, and student and the computer' Coleman, 1996 'Spontaneous talk around the computer is more purposeful than a task set by the teacher to stimulate the students to talk.‘ Coleman, 1996 ‘Pair and group work provide opportunities for learners to use and improve language in an individual manner as well as to increase motivation.’ Nunan 1993

11 10 Communicative CALL Student /student collaboration –Prior to working with computers –While using computers –During a pause in computer use –After using computers

12 11 Guidelines for the teacher ‘ The (teacher) has a critical role to play in every stage of the process – choice of programs, choice of text exercise, the nature of the pre or post activities that are used. The computer itself cannot teach’ Kaufmann 1992 As a teacher you should- Consider carefully your goals Think integration Don't underestimate the complexity Provide necessary support Involve students in decisions Warschauer 1997

13 12 Student Centred Learning As is often the case with other student- centred and communicative activities the teacher takes a greater role as a facilitator ‘the guide on the side rather than the sage on the stage’ The teacher is on the move checking over shoulders, asking questions and teaching mini lessons FNO vol 7, no 6 Circulating Monitoring Guiding Facilitating Troubleshooting Observing Encouraging Modelling Clarifying Motivating Assessing Moderating Redirecting Suggesting

14 13 Considerations for a Lesson Student & teacher familiarity with the program What parts to use (Not the whole program at random) What are the linguistic aims of the lesson and how will this be achieved What part of the teaching/learning cycle is the computer playing (building context, modelling, joint construction etc) Links to the classroom (Pre teaching vocabulary, setting the context or other prior activities in the classroom) Dynamics to be used (individual/pairwork/group) Handouts and/or follow up activities required

15 14 Pitfalls to using CALL ‘Urge to surf’ ‘Babysitting’ Lack of training Overload of information Structuring lessons to stay on task Making computer time language learning productive Adapting classroom tasks to the computer room Controlling the technology (not the technology controlling the class) Technical problems

16 15 Overcoming the Pitfalls Have a starting point Inform the students Clarify aims Devise a logical lesson structure Provide activities for student interaction Manage the computer room Vary the dynamics Link the computer lessons to the curriculum (both pre and post)

17 16 Sample Procedure for a Communicative CALL Lesson Pre teach (prior to or at beginning of lesson) Allocate Pairs (consider, English level, computer expertise/familiarity, nationalities) Explain what and why (clear goals increase interest and motivation) Demonstrate (guide the students about what to do) Monitor, troubleshoot, assist Assess / Follow Up (with tests, assignments, homework and/or subsequent classroom lessons)

18 17 Examples Weather –Weather LessonWeather Lesson –CNN weather siteCNN weather site Movies –IMDB Film SiteIMDB Film Site –Movie activitiesMovie activities –Movie Web ExerciseMovie Web Exercise –Movie for Guide for ESL studentsMovie for Guide for ESL students News –CNN Reading and online exercisesCNN Reading and online exercises –Newspapers from all over the WorldNewspapers from all over the World –More readings and online exercisesMore readings and online exercises Recipes –Student Recipe ExchangeStudent Recipe Exchange

19 18 Summary Learning outcomes must drive the use of CALL not the technology. CALL lessons must be integrated to the curriculum Language is a human activity and language learning in CALL requires humans (teachers) to facilitate this learning with computers as a tool for learning (like an OHP or cassette). Pair work at the computer can produce a new dimension of authentic communicative activity and problem solving to many CALL activities

20 19 The Future Project and Task based learning (a form of the ‘strong’ version of communicative teaching) is gaining increasing prominence in language education and is a natural partner to CALL in what Warschauer terms as ‘integrative CALL’ and a move from the cognitive view of language learning to a socio cognitive one. However ‘Whether we rely on textbooks or technology, we must remember that they are only inert tools. It is how we use these tools that will ultimately affect our students…’ Armstrong and Yetter-Vassot 1994:476


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