2Agenda Test Assign Essay Assignment 1 Talk about how to write an OutlineAssign OutlineNounsPossessive Nouns
3Test Read all directions carefully You have until 7:15 to take the test. If you finish early make sure you are back at 7:15.You are allowed one sheet of notes hand written for the test. Nothing else should be on your area of the table. If there is, I will take your test and you will receive a zero.
4Essay Assignment 1Think carefully about the issue presented in the following excerpt and the assignment below.I cannot comprehend those who emphasize or recognize only what is useful. I am concerned that learning for learning's sake is no longer considered desirable, that everything we do and think must be directed toward the solution of a practical problem. More and more we seem to try to teach how to make a good living and not how to live a good life.Adapted from Philip D. JordanAssignment:Do people put too much emphasis on learning practical skills? Write a 1-2 page typed essay on why you feel this way.
5OutlinesAn outline is a general plan of the material that is to be presented in a speech or a paper. The outline shows the order of the various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts.
6Order in an OutlineThere are many ways to arrange the different parts of a subject.Sometimes, a chronological arrangement works well (time order)The most common order in outlines is to go from the general to the specific. This means you begin with a general idea and then support it with specific examples.You can also reverse the order and go from specific to general.
7Thesis Statement of Summarizing Sentence All outlines should begin with a thesis statement of summarizing sentence. This thesis sentence presents the central idea of the paper. It must always be a complete, grammatical sentence, specific and brief, which expresses the point of view you are taking towards the subject.
8Types of OutlinesThe two main types of outlines are the topic outline and the sentence outline.In the topic outline, the headings are given in single words or brief phrases.In the sentence outline, all the headings are expressed in complete sentences.
9Rules for Outlining1. Subdivide topics by a system of numbers and letters, followed by a period.Example:I. A. B. 1. 2. a. b.II.2. Each heading and subheading must have at least two parts.3. Headings for parts of the paper of speech such as, Introduction and Conclusion, should not be used.4. Be consistent. Do not mix up the two types of outlines. Use either whole sentences of brief phrases, but not both.
10Topic Outline Choices in College and After Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my life’s work. I. Two decisions describedA. Art history or chemistry1. Professional considerations2. Personal considerationsB. A third year of French?1. Practical advantages of knowing a foreign language2. Intellectual advantages3. The issue of necessityII. Definition of the problemA. Decisions about occupationB. Decisions about a kind of life to lead III. Temporary resolution of the problemA. To hold open a professional possibility: chemistryB. To take advantage of cultural gains already made: French
11Sentence OutlineChoices in College and After Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my life’s work. I. I have two decisions to make with respect to choosing college courses in the immediate future. A. One is whether to elect a course in art history or in chemistry. 1. One time in my life, I planned to be a chemical engineer professionally. 2. On the other hand, I enjoy art and plan to travel and see more of it. B. The second decision is whether to continue a third year of French beyond the basic college requirement. 1. French might be useful both in engineering and travel. 2. Furthermore, I am eager to read good books which are written in French. 3. How necessary are these considerations in the light of other courses I might take instead? II. My problem can be put in the form of a dilemma involving larger questions about my whole future. A. On the one hand I want to hold a highly-trained position in a lucrative profession. B. On the other hand I want to lead a certain kind of life, with capacities for values not connected with the making of money. III. I will have to make a decision balancing the conflicting needs I have described. A. I will hold open the professional possibilities by electing chemistry. B. I will improve and solidify what cultural proficiency in another language I have already gained, by electing French.
12Nouns Learning Objectives Recognize 4 classes of nouns Make regular and irregular nouns pluralSpell challenging plural nouns ending in y, o, and f.Form the plurals of proper nouns, surnames, compound nouns, numerals, letters, degrees, and abbreviationsRecognize and use correctly foreign nounsMake special nouns and single-letter abbreviations plural
13Noun classesNouns name people, places, things, qualities, feelings, concepts, activities, and measures.Nouns can be grouped into four classes.Concrete NounsAbstract NounsCommon NounsProper Nouns
14Concrete NounsName specific objects that you can actually see, hear, feel, taste, or smell.Examples:WaterTangerineTelephoneBagelStaplerComputers
15Abstract Nouns Abstract nouns name qualities or concepts. Examples: LoyaltyEthicsFreedomHappinessValues
16Common nouns Common nouns name generalized people, places, and things. Examples:CandyDogsProfessionalsRoller coastersBoysGirls
17Proper nouns Proper nouns name specific people, places, or things. Examples:SnickersBasenjisDr. SmithMillennium ForceBobTina
18Regular plural nouns Plural nouns name two or more things. Regular nouns form the plural with the addition of s or es.Examples.Office, officesManager, managersBench, benchesLoss, lossesFax, faxesBe careful of words such as quiz which will become quizzes.
19Irregular nouns - plural Irregular nouns change form to make the plural.Examples:Man, menWoman, womenChild, childrenMouse, miceFoot, feet
20Irregular nouns - plural Some nouns do not change from their singular to pluralExamples:deerMooseAircraftFishPantsShortsEyeglassesScissorsSpeciesOffspring
21Try your skill Make the following words plural: House Tax Coin Mouse BusinessWishWorkmanVirusQuiz
23Challenging noun plurals Nouns ending in yWhen the y is preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u), then add s onlyExamples:Attorney, attorneysHoliday, holidaysValley, valleysWhen y is preceded by a consonant, change the y to an i and add esExamplesBaby, babiesCompany, companies
24Nouns ending in f or feThere is no standard rule. You either add an s or change the f to a v and add s or esExamples:Cliff, cliffsSafe, safesStaff, staffsKnife, knivesShelf, shelvesLife, lives
25Nouns ending in o When the o is preceded by a vowel, add s only Examples:Studio, studiosCurio, curiosWhen o is preceded by a consonant, add an s or esAuto, autosPotato, potatoesSolo, solosVeto, vetoes
26Proper names and Surnames Most proper nouns are made plural by adding s. When the word the appears before the surname, then the name should always be plural:KennedyThe KennedysSmithThe Smiths
27Proper names and Surnames Proper nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, or sh are made plural by adding esBush, the BushesDoremus, the DoremusesGomez, the Gomezes
28Compound nounsIf a compound noun is written as a single word, make the final element plural.Bookshelf, bookshelvesWorkman, workmenIf the compound noun is hyphenated or written as separate words, make the principal word plural.Mother-in-law, mothers-in-lawRunner-up, runners-upEditor in chief, editors in chief
29Numerals, Alphabet Letters, Isolated Words, and Degrees The rule is to use only an s unless you need to add clarity (only when using isolated lowercase letters and lower or upper case A,I,M,&U)Examples:2000sPros and consMDsI’s, i’s, m’s, M’s, t’s, Ts, U’s, u’s
30Abbreviations Add s to the singular form MBA MBAs Yr. Yrs. Wk. Wks. No. Nos.
31Try your skills Make the following words plural: Copy CPA Sunday Knife 2000p and qEditor in chiefAttorney general
32Answers Copies CPAs Sundays Knives 2000s p’s and q’s Editors in chief Attorneys general
33Foreign nounsAlumnus Alumni Analysis analyses Basis bases Criterion criteria Millennium millennia Datum data Formula formulae Stimulus stimuli Syllabus syllabi
34Special nounsSome nouns are ONLY singular or ONLY plural in meaning.
42How do you know where to place apostrophes? Follow the five stepsLook for possessive construction. Usually two nouns appear together:Have you seen Kim’s book?Reverse the nouns. Use the second noun to begin a preposition phrase.Book of KimExamine the ownership word. Does it end in an s sound?
43If the ownership word does NOT end in an s sound, then add an apostrophe and s to the word: Boy boy’sGirl girl’sTim Tim’sChildren children’sFeet feet’sIf the ownership word DOES end in an s sound, usually add an apostrophe only:Years years’Employees employees’With names ending in s either is acceptable:Chris can be Chris’s or Chris’
44Compound nouns The final element of the compound shows the possessive: Father-in-law’s signatureEditor in chief’s suggestions
45Incomplete possessives When the second noun is unstated but is understood, the possessive is incomplete. Use an apostrophe to show possession even though the second noun is only implied.The party is at Francisco’s.Darren’s exam is earlier than Craig’s.
46Separate or Combined Ownership When two nouns express separate ownership, make both nouns possessive.Bob’s and Samantha’s camerasWhen two nouns express combined ownership, make only the second noun possessive.Tina and Rick’s restaurantWhat tells us if it is combined or separate ownership?
47AbbreviationsMake abbreviations possessive by following the same guidelines as for other nouns.CPA’s conventionLevi Strauss & Co.’s jeans
48Awkward PossessivesReword awkward expressions by using prepositional phrases:My friend’s father’s businessThe business of my friend’s fatherMr. Saltzman, my attorney’s, adviceThe advice of my attorney, Mr. Saltzman
49Try your skillsChange the following prepositional phrases into apostrophe constructions:Testimony of the witnessBooks of the studentsContracts of both companiesRole of the actressRoles of the actresses
51Which is correctThe butler stood by the door and called the guest’s names as they arrived.The butler stood by the door and called the guests names as they arrived.The butler stood by the door and called the guests’ names as they arrived.
52Try your skillsChange the following prepositional phrases into apostrophe constructions.The car of Mrs. MetzThe car of the MetzesThe car of RussThe car of the Harrises
53Answers Mrs. Metz’s car or Mrs. Metz’ car The Metzes’ car Russ’s car or Russ’ carThe Harrises’ car
54HomeworkDue next weekOutline for your final paper (does not need to be your final outline, but I want to see that you are starting on it and have an idea of what you are going to be doing). MUST BE TYPED!Page 57 Exercise BPage 58 Exercise BPage 60 Exercise BPage 73 Exercise BPage 74 Exercise CPage 75 Exercise BPage 77 exercise C
55Essay Assignment 1 This assignment is due Dec. 16 This assignment must be typedKeep in mind this is a graded assignment.You will be graded on your grammar and how well you develop your thoughts.