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Test Assign Essay Assignment 1 Talk about how to write an Outline Assign Outline Nouns Possessive Nouns.

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Presentation on theme: "Test Assign Essay Assignment 1 Talk about how to write an Outline Assign Outline Nouns Possessive Nouns."— Presentation transcript:


2 Test Assign Essay Assignment 1 Talk about how to write an Outline Assign Outline Nouns Possessive Nouns

3 Read all directions carefully You have until 7:15 to take the test. If you finish early make sure you are back at 7:15. You are allowed one sheet of notes hand written for the test. Nothing else should be on your area of the table. If there is, I will take your test and you will receive a zero.

4 Think carefully about the issue presented in the following excerpt and the assignment below. I cannot comprehend those who emphasize or recognize only what is useful. I am concerned that learning for learning's sake is no longer considered desirable, that everything we do and think must be directed toward the solution of a practical problem. More and more we seem to try to teach how to make a good living and not how to live a good life. Adapted from Philip D. Jordan Assignment: Do people put too much emphasis on learning practical skills? Write a 1-2 page typed essay on why you feel this way.

5 An outline is a general plan of the material that is to be presented in a speech or a paper. The outline shows the order of the various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts.

6 There are many ways to arrange the different parts of a subject. Sometimes, a chronological arrangement works well (time order) The most common order in outlines is to go from the general to the specific. This means you begin with a general idea and then support it with specific examples. You can also reverse the order and go from specific to general.

7 All outlines should begin with a thesis statement of summarizing sentence. This thesis sentence presents the central idea of the paper. It must always be a complete, grammatical sentence, specific and brief, which expresses the point of view you are taking towards the subject.

8 The two main types of outlines are the topic outline and the sentence outline. In the topic outline, the headings are given in single words or brief phrases. In the sentence outline, all the headings are expressed in complete sentences.

9 1. Subdivide topics by a system of numbers and letters, followed by a period. Example: I. A. B a. b. II. A. B. 2. Each heading and subheading must have at least two parts. 3. Headings for parts of the paper of speech such as, Introduction and Conclusion, should not be used. 4. Be consistent. Do not mix up the two types of outlines. Use either whole sentences of brief phrases, but not both.

10 Choices in College and After Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my lifes work. I. Two decisions described A. Art history or chemistry 1. Professional considerations 2. Personal considerations B. A third year of French? 1. Practical advantages of knowing a foreign language 2. Intellectual advantages 3. The issue of necessity II. Definition of the problem A. Decisions about occupation B. Decisions about a kind of life to lead III. Temporary resolution of the problem A. To hold open a professional possibility: chemistry B. To take advantage of cultural gains already made: French

11 Choices in College and After Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my lifes work. I. I have two decisions to make with respect to choosing college courses in the immediate future. A. One is whether to elect a course in art history or in chemistry. 1. One time in my life, I planned to be a chemical engineer professionally. 2. On the other hand, I enjoy art and plan to travel and see more of it. B. The second decision is whether to continue a third year of French beyond the basic college requirement. 1. French might be useful both in engineering and travel. 2. Furthermore, I am eager to read good books which are written in French. 3. How necessary are these considerations in the light of other courses I might take instead? II. My problem can be put in the form of a dilemma involving larger questions about my whole future. A. On the one hand I want to hold a highly-trained position in a lucrative profession. B. On the other hand I want to lead a certain kind of life, with capacities for values not connected with the making of money. III. I will have to make a decision balancing the conflicting needs I have described. A. I will hold open the professional possibilities by electing chemistry. B. I will improve and solidify what cultural proficiency in another language I have already gained, by electing French.

12 Learning Objectives Recognize 4 classes of nouns Make regular and irregular nouns plural Spell challenging plural nouns ending in y, o, and f. Form the plurals of proper nouns, surnames, compound nouns, numerals, letters, degrees, and abbreviations Recognize and use correctly foreign nouns Make special nouns and single-letter abbreviations plural

13 Nouns name people, places, things, qualities, feelings, concepts, activities, and measures. Nouns can be grouped into four classes. 1. Concrete Nouns 2. Abstract Nouns 3. Common Nouns 4. Proper Nouns

14 Name specific objects that you can actually see, hear, feel, taste, or smell. Examples: Water Tangerine Telephone Bagel Stapler Computers

15 Abstract nouns name qualities or concepts. Examples: Loyalty Ethics Freedom Happiness Values

16 Common nouns name generalized people, places, and things. Examples: Candy Dogs Professionals Roller coasters Boys Girls

17 Proper nouns name specific people, places, or things. Examples: Snickers Basenjis Dr. Smith Millennium Force Bob Tina

18 Plural nouns name two or more things. Regular nouns form the plural with the addition of s or es. Examples. Office, offices Manager, managers Bench, benches Loss, losses Fax, faxes Be careful of words such as quiz which will become quizzes.

19 Irregular nouns change form to make the plural. Examples: Man, men Woman, women Child, children Mouse, mice Foot, feet

20 Some nouns do not change from their singular to plural Examples: deer Moose Aircraft Fish Pants Shorts Eyeglasses Scissors Species Offspring

21 Make the following words plural: 1. House 2. Tax 3. Coin 4. Mouse 5. Business 6. Wish 7. Workman 8. Virus 9. Quiz

22 1. Houses 2. Taxes 3. Coins 4. Mice 5. Businesses 6. Wishes 7. Workmen 8. Viruses 9. Quizzes

23 Nouns ending in y When the y is preceded by a vowel (a, e, i, o, u), then add s only Examples: Attorney, attorneys Holiday, holidays Valley, valleys When y is preceded by a consonant, change the y to an i and add es Examples Baby, babies Company, companies

24 There is no standard rule. You either add an s or change the f to a v and add s or es Examples: Cliff, cliffs Safe, safes Staff, staffs Knife, knives Shelf, shelves Life, lives

25 When the o is preceded by a vowel, add s only Examples: Studio, studios Curio, curios When o is preceded by a consonant, add an s or es Examples: Auto, autos Potato, potatoes Solo, solos Veto, vetoes

26 Most proper nouns are made plural by adding s. When the word the appears before the surname, then the name should always be plural: Kennedy The Kennedys Smith The Smiths

27 Proper nouns ending in s, x, z, ch, or sh are made plural by adding es Bush, the Bushes Doremus, the Doremuses Gomez, the Gomezes

28 If a compound noun is written as a single word, make the final element plural. Bookshelf, bookshelves Workman, workmen If the compound noun is hyphenated or written as separate words, make the principal word plural. Mother-in-law, mothers-in-law Runner-up, runners-up Editor in chief, editors in chief

29 The rule is to use only an s unless you need to add clarity (only when using isolated lowercase letters and lower or upper case A,I,M,&U) Examples: 2000s Pros and cons MDs Is, is, ms, Ms, ts, Ts, Us, us

30 Add s to the singular form MBA MBAs Yr. Yrs. Wk. Wks. No. Nos.

31 Make the following words plural: Copy CPA Sunday Knife 2000 p and q Editor in chief Attorney general

32 Copies CPAs Sundays Knives 2000s ps and qs Editors in chief Attorneys general

33 AlumnusAlumni Analysisanalyses Basisbases Criterioncriteria Millenniummillennia Datumdata Formulaformulae Stimulusstimuli Syllabussyllabi

34 Some nouns are ONLY singular or ONLY plural in meaning.

35 Billiards Economics Genetics Kudos Mathematics Measles Mumps News

36 Clothes Goods Pliers Scissors Statistics Tongs Thanks Trousers Pants

37 Apostrophes are used to show the following: Ownerships Origin Authorship measurments

38 Kims book Marthas camera Bobs computer Richards truck

39 Dr. Mosss prescription

40 Hemingways book M. Knite Shamalons movie Steve Barrys article

41 Ten years experience

42 Follow the five steps 1. Look for possessive construction. Usually two nouns appear together: Have you seen Kims book? 2. Reverse the nouns. Use the second noun to begin a preposition phrase. Book of Kim 3. Examine the ownership word. Does it end in an s sound?

43 4. If the ownership word does NOT end in an s sound, then add an apostrophe and s to the word: Boy boys Girl girls Tim Tims Childrenchildrens Feetfeets 5. If the ownership word DOES end in an s sound, usually add an apostrophe only: Yearsyears Employeesemployees With names ending in s either is acceptable: Chris can be Chriss or Chris

44 The final element of the compound shows the possessive: Father-in-laws signature Editor in chiefs suggestions

45 When the second noun is unstated but is understood, the possessive is incomplete. Use an apostrophe to show possession even though the second noun is only implied. The party is at Franciscos. Darrens exam is earlier than Craigs.

46 When two nouns express separate ownership, make both nouns possessive. Bobs and Samanthas cameras When two nouns express combined ownership, make only the second noun possessive. Tina and Ricks restaurant What tells us if it is combined or separate ownership?

47 Make abbreviations possessive by following the same guidelines as for other nouns. CPAs convention Levi Strauss & Co.s jeans

48 Reword awkward expressions by using prepositional phrases: My friends fathers business The business of my friends father Mr. Saltzman, my attorneys, advice The advice of my attorney, Mr. Saltzman

49 Change the following prepositional phrases into apostrophe constructions: 1. Testimony of the witness 2. Books of the students 3. Contracts of both companies 4. Role of the actress 5. Roles of the actresses

50 1. Witnesss testimony 2. Students books 3. Companies contracts 4. Actresss role 5. Actresses roles

51 1. The butler stood by the door and called the guests names as they arrived. 2. The butler stood by the door and called the guests names as they arrived. 3. The butler stood by the door and called the guests names as they arrived.

52 Change the following prepositional phrases into apostrophe constructions. 1. The car of Mrs. Metz 2. The car of the Metzes 3. The car of Russ 4. The car of the Harrises

53 1. Mrs. Metzs car or Mrs. Metz car 2. The Metzes car 3. Russs car or Russ car 4. The Harrises car

54 Due next week Outline for your final paper (does not need to be your final outline, but I want to see that you are starting on it and have an idea of what you are going to be doing). MUST BE TYPED! Page 57 Exercise B Page 58 Exercise B Page 60 Exercise B Page 73 Exercise B Page 74 Exercise C Page 75 Exercise B Page 77 exercise C

55 This assignment is due Dec. 16 This assignment must be typed Keep in mind this is a graded assignment. You will be graded on your grammar and how well you develop your thoughts.

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