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Chapter 5 SNMPv1: Communication and Functional Models.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 SNMPv1: Communication and Functional Models."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 SNMPv1: Communication and Functional Models

2 SNMP Architecture Network SNMP UDP IP SNMP ManagerSNMP Agent SNMP Manager Application Get-Request GetNext-Request Set-Request Get-Response Trap SNMP UDP IP SNMP Agent Application Get-Request GetNext-Request Set-Request Get-Response Trap

3 SNMP Messages Get-Request Get-Next-Request Set-Request Get-Response Trap Generic trap Specific trap

4 Administrative Model Based on community profile and policy SNMP Entities: SNMP application entities - Reside in management stations and network elements - Manager and agent SNMP protocol entities - Communication processes (PDU handlers) - Peer processes that support application entities

5 SNMP Community Security in SNMPv1 is community-based Authentication scheme in manager and agent Community: Pairing of two application entities Community name: String of octets Two applications in the same community communicate with each other Application could have multiple community names Communication is not secured in SNMPv1 - no encryption

6 SNMP Community Community Relationship between an Agent and Managers. Community Name Used to validate the SNMP messages. Password SNMP Password. Default Get community name: public. Authentication Failure Agent sends Authentication Failure Trap to Manager.

7 SNMP Community

8 Community Profile MIB view An agent is programmed to view only a subset of managed objects of a network element Access mode Each community name is assigned an access mode:: read-only and read-write Community profile = MIB view + access mode Operations on an object determined by community profile and the access mode of the object Total of four access privileges Some objects, such as table and table entry are non-accessible

9 Community Profile

10 Access Policy Administration model is SNMP access policy SNMP community paired with SNMP community profile is SNMP access policy

11 Access Policy

12 GeneralizedAdministrationModelGeneralizedAdministrationModel

13 Proxy Access Policy

14 Protocol Entities

15 Default UDP Ports for SNMP SNMP UDP IP Manager Management Station Network Elements (NEs) SNMP UDP IP Agent 162 Any 161 Any

16 Protocol Entities Protocol entities support application entities Communication between remote peer processes Message consists of Version identifier Community name Protocol Data Unit Message encapsulated and transmitted

17 SNMP Message Version Identifier Community Name Protocol Data Unit The length of SNMP messages should not exceed 484 octets. Message ::= SEQUENCE { versionINTEGER {version-1(0)}, communityOCTET STRING, data ANY } Version Community SNMP PDU

18 SNMP PDUs

19 SNMP PDU PDU ::= SEQUENCE { request-id INTEGER, error-status INTEGER { noError(0), tooBig(1), noSuchName(2), badValue(3), readOnly(4) genErr(5)}, error-index INTEGER, variable-bindings SEQUENCE OF { nameObjectName, valueObjectSyntax } GetRquest : GetNextRequest : GetResponse : SetRequest : Trap : [0] PDU [1] PDU [2] PDU [3] PDU [4] Trap-PDU Five SNMP PDUs: PDU: Protocol Data Unit

20 SNMP PDU (cont.) PDU typerequest-id00variable-bindings GetRequest, GetNextRequest, SetRequest PDU typerequest-id error-statuserror-index variable-bindings GetResponse variable-bindings name value name value name value...

21 Trap-PDU Trap-PDU ::= [4] IMPLICIT SEQUENCE { enterprise OBJECT IDENTIFIER, agent-addr NetworkAddress, generic-trap INTEGER { coldStart(0), warmStart(1), linkDown(2), linkUp(3), authenticationFailure(4), egpNeighborLoss(5), enterpriseSpecific(6)}, specific-trapINTEGER, time-stampTimeTicks, variable-bindingsVarBindList } Enterprise Enterprise: Type of Object generating trap. Agent Address Agent Address: Address of object generating trap. Generic Trap Generic Trap: Generic trap type. Specific Trap Specific Trap: Enterprise specific trap. Time Stamp Time Stamp: Time elapsed between the last initialization of the network entity and the generation of the trap. Variable Bindings Interesting information PDU type enterprise agent-addr generic - trap variable-bindings specific - trap time-stamp

22 Trap Type

23 Enterprise-Specific Traps Traps defined by enterprises Identification of Enterprise-Specific Traps Enterprise Enterprise OID Generic-Trap 6 Specific-Trap an Integer

24 Manager Agent

25 Get-Next Request A B T E Z

26 Lexicographic Order

27 Get-Next Request :Non-Leaf Object :Leaf Object MIB Tree : In SNMP, Only leaf objects have values.

28 Get-Next Requests with Indices

29 SNMP Get-Request Example >> snmpget -d Transmitted 41 bytes to camry ( ) port 161: Initial Timeout: 0.80 seconds 0: c a0 1a 02 0'.....public... 0: c a0 1a 02 0'.....public... 16: bc e 30 0c b : bc e 30 0c b : : : SNMP MESSAGE (0x30): 39 bytes 0: SNMP MESSAGE (0x30): 39 bytes 2: INTEGER VERSION (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 (SNMPv1) 2: INTEGER VERSION (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 (SNMPv1) 5: OCTET-STR COMMUNITY (0x4) 6 bytes: "public" 5: OCTET-STR COMMUNITY (0x4) 6 bytes: "public" 13: GET-REQUEST-PDU (0xa0): 26 bytes 13: GET-REQUEST-PDU (0xa0): 26 bytes 15: INTEGER REQUEST-ID (0x2) 2 bytes: : INTEGER REQUEST-ID (0x2) 2 bytes: : INTEGER ERROR-STATUS (0x2) 1 bytes: noError(0) 19: INTEGER ERROR-STATUS (0x2) 1 bytes: noError(0) 22: INTEGER ERROR-INDEX (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 22: INTEGER ERROR-INDEX (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 25: SEQUENCE VARBIND-LIST (0x30): 14 bytes 25: SEQUENCE VARBIND-LIST (0x30): 14 bytes 27: SEQUENCE VARBIND (0x30): 12 bytes 27: SEQUENCE VARBIND (0x30): 12 bytes 29: OBJ-ID (0x6) 8 bytes: : OBJ-ID (0x6) 8 bytes: : NULL (0x5) 0 bytes 39: NULL (0x5) 0 bytes

30 SNMP Get-Response Example Received 69 bytes from port 161: 0: c a C.....public.6. 0: c a C.....public.6. 16: bc a b *0(..+ 16: bc a b *0(..+ 32: c e e 4d Sun SNM 32: c e e 4d Sun SNM 48: e 74 2c e 57 2c 55 6c P Agent, SUNW,Ul 48: e 74 2c e 57 2c 55 6c P Agent, SUNW,Ul 64: d tra : d tra : SNMP MESSAGE (0x30): 67 bytes 0: SNMP MESSAGE (0x30): 67 bytes 2: INTEGER VERSION (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 (SNMPv1) 2: INTEGER VERSION (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 (SNMPv1) 5: OCTET-STR COMMUNITY (0x4) 6 bytes: "public" 5: OCTET-STR COMMUNITY (0x4) 6 bytes: "public" 13: RESPONSE-PDU (0xa2): 54 bytes 13: RESPONSE-PDU (0xa2): 54 bytes 15: INTEGER REQUEST-ID (0x2) 2 bytes: : INTEGER REQUEST-ID (0x2) 2 bytes: : INTEGER ERROR-STATUS (0x2) 1 bytes: noError(0) 19: INTEGER ERROR-STATUS (0x2) 1 bytes: noError(0) 22: INTEGER ERROR-INDEX (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 22: INTEGER ERROR-INDEX (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 25: SEQUENCE VARBIND-LIST (0x30): 42 bytes 25: SEQUENCE VARBIND-LIST (0x30): 42 bytes 27: SEQUENCE VARBIND (0x30): 40 bytes 27: SEQUENCE VARBIND (0x30): 40 bytes 29: OBJ-ID (0x6) 8 bytes: : OBJ-ID (0x6) 8 bytes: : OCTET-STR (0x4) 28 bytes: "Sun SNMP Agent, SUNW,Ultra-1" 39: OCTET-STR (0x4) 28 bytes: "Sun SNMP Agent, SUNW,Ultra-1" system.sysDescr.0 : DISPLAY STRING- (ascii): Sun SNMP Agent, SUNW,Ultra-1

31 SNMP-Walk - Use of SNMP Get-Next Request snmpwalk snmpwalk system.sysDescr.0 : DISPLAY STRING- (ascii): Sun SNMP Agent, SUNW,Ultra-1 system.sysObjectID.0 : OBJECT IDENTIFIER:.iso.org.dod.internet.private.enterprises system.sysUpTime.0 : Timeticks: ( ) 22 days, 22:36:39.58 system.sysContact.0 : DISPLAY STRING- (ascii): system.sysName.0 : DISPLAY STRING- (ascii): camry system.sysLocation.0 : DISPLAY STRING- (ascii): Information Technology Laboratory 3F system.sysServices.0 : INTEGER: 72 ( )B

32 SNMP Trap Example Transmitted 64 bytes to port 162: 0: 30 3e c a >.....public.1. 0: 30 3e c a >.....public.1. 16: 09 2b a : 09 2b a : f C : f C : 04 2b Trap test 48: 04 2b Trap test 0: SNMP MESSAGE (0x30): 62 bytes 0: SNMP MESSAGE (0x30): 62 bytes 2: INTEGER VERSION (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 (SNMPv1) 2: INTEGER VERSION (0x2) 1 bytes: 0 (SNMPv1) 5: OCTET-STR COMMUNITY (0x4) 6 bytes: "public" 5: OCTET-STR COMMUNITY (0x4) 6 bytes: "public" 13: V1-TRAP-PDU (0xa4): 49 bytes 13: V1-TRAP-PDU (0xa4): 49 bytes 15: OBJ-ID ENTERPRISE (0x6) 9 bytes: : OBJ-ID ENTERPRISE (0x6) 9 bytes: : IPADDRESS AGENT-ADDR (0x40) 4 bytes: : IPADDRESS AGENT-ADDR (0x40) 4 bytes: : INTEGER GENERIC-TRAP (0x2) 1 bytes: 6 32: INTEGER GENERIC-TRAP (0x2) 1 bytes: 6 35: INTEGER SPECIFIC-TRAP (0x2) 3 bytes: : INTEGER SPECIFIC-TRAP (0x2) 3 bytes: : TIMETICKS TIME-STAMP (0x43) 1 bytes: 0 (0x0) 40: TIMETICKS TIME-STAMP (0x43) 1 bytes: 0 (0x0) 43: SEQUENCE VARBIND-LIST (0x30): 19 bytes 43: SEQUENCE VARBIND-LIST (0x30): 19 bytes 45: SEQUENCE VARBIND (0x30): 17 bytes 45: SEQUENCE VARBIND (0x30): 17 bytes 47: OBJ-ID (0x6) 4 bytes: : OBJ-ID (0x6) 4 bytes: : OCTET-STR (0x4) 9 bytes: "Trap test" 53: OCTET-STR (0x4) 9 bytes: "Trap test"

33 Get System Information Get System Group of MIB II Use get_request or get_next_request sysDescr sysObjectID sysUptime sysContact sysName sysLocation

34 Get Interface Information Get Interface Group of MIB II Repeatedly Use get_next_request Note: We don t know the ifIndex values in ifTable. + First get the next object of.ifTable.ifEntry.0 Then repeatedly get_next + Until the whole subtree is visited.

35

36 Traffic Monitoring Get ifInOctets and ifOutOctets of MIB II Interface Group t 1 : C 1 t 2 : C 2 (C 2 - C 1 ) 8 (t 2 - t 1 ) Bandwidth 100% Utilization (%) =

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