Presentation on theme: "Intergenerational solidarity and old-age support: the changing role of family and government in China Du Peng Institute of Gerontology Renmin University."— Presentation transcript:
Intergenerational solidarity and old-age support: the changing role of family and government in China Du Peng Institute of Gerontology Renmin University of China
1. Background China is facing a challenge at the beginning of an ageing society; Rapid ageing population Strong tradition of filial piety and informal support The government want to keep the tradition and gradually develop the formal support system.
Three decades practice of family planning Decline of fertility rate Smaller household size Changing living arrangements
Tradition and changes Dual economic system Tradition of family support Filial piety Increasing numbers of floating population Ageing issues get more attention
Policy and law 1982 UN World Assembly on Ageing 1996 Law on Protecting the Rights and Benefits of Older Persons 2002 United Nations Madrid International Plan of Action on Aging To build a harmonious society
Intergenerational solidarity -- UN MIAPA 2002 Solidarity between generations at all levels -- in families, communities and nations -- is fundamental for the achievement of a society for all ages. Solidarity is also a major prerequisite for social cohesion and a foundation of formal public welfare and informal care systems. Changing demographic, social and economic circumstances require the adjustment of pension, social security, health and long-term care systems to sustain economic growth and development and to ensure adequate and effective income maintenance and service provision.
Challenges What are the challenges the family facing to provide the support? Can the family members provide enough support to the elderly? Do the children want to support their elderly parents? What are the governments doing to balance the formal and informal support?
2. The population aging and the elderly in China 60 and over reached 153.4 million, or 11.6% of the total population; the elderly population aged 65 and over was 106.4 million, covering 8.1% of the total. More than 430 million elderly by 2050
Life expectancy, Economic resources 73 years 80 years for developed area Diverse economic resources
Old age security system reform Established in 1951 Retirement age is 60 years for males and 50 for females. 15 years and more contribution Reform of enterprise retirement system
Progress 50 million retirees Emerging pension system in rural areas Universal pension system for migrant workers New health care system Community care subsidy
3. Intergenerational solidarity and old age support The proportion of elderly living alone has been increasing. Filial piety is not enough for the elderly. Intergenerational solidarity needs the efforts of both generations. Should China postpone the retirement age?
Action Formal support is enhanced so that a balance of formal and informal support can be achieved. To speed up the building of a social service system suitable for an ageing society. Pursuing a new balance of formal support and filial piety. Promoting the intergenerational solidarity.
Some new concepts have replaced the traditional filial piety, for example, elderly and young generation is reciprocal, both of them have equal rights and should respect each other Filial piety is playing important role but the social security is fundamental to help the children to practice it.
Elderly people are encouraged to actively participate in the social development and activities so that they can contribute to the society further, and they can keep pace with the social development. The basis of intergenerational solidarity is the understanding of both generations.
Film festival on older persons 10 movies on the life of elderly and intergenerational relationship were showed on the Central Television covering the whole nation. Many elderly learned more about the life of others and what the young generations ideas on the elderly, while the young people have learnt a lot about the life of the elderly and how to communicate and make friends with them.
Beijing Welfare pension One child family subsidy New policy announced in last October 11 items including concessions on transport, leisure activities, cultural activities, home care, health check, legal consultancy More beds in institutions.
4. Conclusion China has the largest number of elderly population in the world; it is impossible to keep the traditional way of family support to the increasing number of elderly. China is exploring a way to seek the balance of formal and informal support to solve the emerging issues in the process of population ageing.
Filial piety has to be combined with the development of social security to play its role in modern China. The debates on the intergenerational solidarity and old age support have promoted the government to integrate these issues into the social policy and developmental strategy on building a harmonious society.
The huge size of elderly population and the changing needs of them. For the established pension and health care system, the level need to be raised along with the economic development, and the gap between urban and rural elderly narrowed.
The ongoing debate is that should China develop the institutional care further or just develop the community care. Psychological issues and emotional support are emerging needs for the elderly living separately from their children.