Presentation on theme: "Market Failure Market prices usually reflect the benefits and costs received by the producers and consumers involved in an exchange. A kind of market failure."— Presentation transcript:
1Market FailureMarket prices usually reflect the benefits and costs received by the producers and consumers involved in an exchange.A kind of market failure occurs when market prices DO NOT reflect all the costs and all the benefits involved.This type of market failure is called an externality.
2ExternalitiesExternalities exist when some of the costs or benefits associated with the production or consumption of a product "spill over" to third parties, who do not produce or pay to consume the product.Negative externalities are costs paid by someone who does not produce or pay to consume a product.Examples?Cigarette smoking: secondhand smoke; health costs
3ExternalitiesPositive externalities are benefits enjoyed by someone who does not produce or pay to consume a product.Examples?Education: society benefits from increased productivity; less crime; lower rates of poverty; etc.
4Positive or Negative Externalities Driving a car on crowded highway?Negative: exhaust fumes, etc.Apartment dwellers who buy fire alarms or fire extinguishers?Positive: other dwellers benefitNeighbor playing loud music while you study?Negative: you bear cost of not concentratingNew landscaping in neighbor’s yard?Positive: increases value of houses in neighborhood.
5Activity 12.2: Externalities Worksheet PriceSP1PDQuantity (Tons of Steel)Q1Q
6Activity 12.2: Externalities Worksheet PPriceQuantity (Years of Education)SDQP1Q1D1