Presentation on theme: "Essential Question What role should government play in a free market economy? 1."— Presentation transcript:
1Essential QuestionWhat role should government play in a free market economy?1
2Objectives Identify examples of public goods. Analyze market failures. Evaluate how the government allocates some resources by managing externalities.
3Key Termsfree rider: someone who would not be willing to pay for a certain good or service but who would get the benefits of it anyway if it were provided as a public goodmarket failure: a situation in which the free market, operating on its own, does not distribute resources efficiently (need government intervention)externality: an economic side effect of a good or service that generates benefits or costs to someone other than the person deciding how much to produce or consume (pollution, living next to a park)
4Key Terms , cont.public good: a shared good or service for which it would be inefficient or impractical to make consumers pay individually and to exclude those who did not paynon-rival good: a good or service that can be used by any number of consumers without reducing the benefits to any single consumer (public goods are non-rival; think of riding the train)public sector: the part of the economy that involves the transactions of the governmentprivate sector: the part of the economy that involves the transactions of individuals and businessesinfrastructure: the basic facilities that are necessary for a society to function or grow – like roads, ports, canals, public transit (usually a public good)
5New Park: Who Should Pay For It? Uptown is going to build a new park that is a gorgeous place that provides recreation servicesWhat benefit does the park provide to you? What are the costs/tradeoffs of using the park?How much would you pay to use the park?If you are using the park, can other people use it as well?100 people have paid to build the park. Will the 101st person still be able to use the park?Will people be upset if they are not allowed to use a park in their neighborhoodHow would the first 100 people who paid feel about this?Will any of the surrounding homes or businesses benefit from the new park?
6Market FailuresMarket Failures are where the free market does not distribute resources efficiently or charge the right price for a good or serviceSome examples of market failures are:Free-Rider ProblemPublic GoodsExternalities (especially Negative Externalities)Checkpoint Answer: Because the free market can not distribute public goods efficiently.
7Free RidersOne issue associated with public goods is known as the “free-rider problem.”Free riders are people who are not willing to pay for a particular good or service but would benefit from it if it were offered as a public good.Fire/Police Services, Parks, Beaches, Street Lights, Roads are all good examples of the free-rider problem
8Public GoodsA public good is a shared good or service for which it would be inefficient or impractical to make consumers pay individually and to exclude those who do not pay.Free markets will not provide these goods or services on their ownPublic goods are a market failureFree-Rider problem often makes it hard to charge consumers for using the public good
9Public Goods, cont.Public goods can be used by any number of consumers without reducing the benefits to any single consumer.These are callednon-rival goodsThis adds to thefree-rider problemThink of a park, road,street sign, fire dept
10ExternalitiesPublic goods involve externalities, which may be either positive or negative.Externality is a benefit or a cost that is not captured in the priceWe will explore externalities more when we talk about supply and demandPositive ExternalitiesRepresent the beneficial side effects of public goodsAllow someone who did not purchase a good to enjoy part of the benefits of that goodExamples:a new park would increase the value of homes nearby, but homeowners did not pay for the parkA new road or highway might bring more people to a town, which will help local businesses grow, but the local businesses did not pay for the road
11Externalities, cont’d. Negative Externalities Represent the negative/cost side effects of public goodsCause part of the cost of producing a good or service to be paid for by someone other than the producer.Example:A coal-fired power plant produces electricity, but also has the negative externality of polluting the air. The power company does not pay for the cost of pollution, the neighbors “pay for this cost” by breathing polluted airAnswers: It is positive because it means more business for nearby gas stations and restaurants and it is negative because it increases construction and traffic noise in the area.
12Externalities, cont’d.A town is considering building a new bridge to help local farmers get their products to the market. Why would the construction of the bridge be considered a positive externality some people and a negative externality by others?Answers: It is positive because it means more business for nearby gas stations and restaurants and it is negative because it increases construction and traffic noise in the area.12
13Market FailuresCheckpoint: Road construction is a public good. Explain how road construction is a market failure?Free-Rider Problem: If I paid for a road on my street, my neighbors could still use itExternalities: Roads might bring more traffic and pollution to an area (negative) or more stores and businesses to an area (positive)Public Good: Roads are shared and it is inefficient/impractical to charge people to use the roadCheckpoint Answer: Because the free market can not distribute public goods efficiently.13
14Role of Government: Costs and Benefits Since the free market doesn’t provide public goods, government must provide public goodsThe government will only pay for the cost of a public good if:The benefit to each individual is less than the cost that each individual would have to pay if it were provided privately (by the free market).The total benefits to society are greater than the total cost.Checkpoint Answer: 1) The benefit to each individual is less than the cost that each individual would have to pay if it were provided privately. 2) The total benefits to society are greater than the total cost.
15Role of Government: Regulation and Externalities Understanding externalities helps us see more roles that the government plays in the U.S. economy.The government may take action to create positive externalities, such as improving education.The government aims to limit negative externalities like pollution, such as the Clean Air Act or smog control on cars