Industry COPENHAGEN - AND BEYOND ACHIEVING A GLOBAL APPROACH TO REDUCING AVIATION EMISSIONS At Greener Skies 2009 aviation leaders will outline their visionary plans to make aviation greener as they seek a rightful place among industry equals at the world most important climate change forum. Aviation is responsible for 2% of man-made CO 2 emissions worldwide
Industry G8 and ICAO policy, 50% CO 2 reduction by 2050 Emissions Trading System (ETS) EU directives are now in place Effecting 2700 air carriers flying to and from Europe The EU require details of both Revenue Tonne Kilometers (RTK) and CO 2 emissions to be kept by all carriers
Industry Problems with ETS … ETS Aug. 31 deadline extended UK's announced that it does not have "a firm and agreed list" of operators to be regulated by each member state European Commission has not yet announced 2012 emissions cap for flight into Europe Industry is waiting for further information on ETS
Every Kg of combusted jet-A1 is generating 3.16 kgs of CO 2 i.e. 100 kgs jet-A1 corresponds to 316 kgs of CO 2 which can be mathematically proven with Stoichiometric law CH 4 + 2(O 2 + 3.76N 2 ) -> CO 2 + 2H 2 O + 7.52N 2
Why Eco Pilot Training? An important piece in the Airlines fuel saving strategy
The Airline: Why? Environmental issues affecting all airlines – (Branding) Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is coming Fuel cost savings – with training program, it will strengthen the airlines saving potential
The Airline: Expand into fuel saving behaviour within: Type rating and conversion training Recurrent training – LPC/OPC Strengthening fuel saving behaviour and environmental thinking in pilots
Target Customers: Small and medium sized Operators - Training must be flexible due to very different level of maturity among the Airlines fuel conservation programs Fuel cost today per A/C per year: Charter: 8-10 Million Scheduled: 5-8 Million
Phase 1 commitment Management Commitment… Plan for Success Key players… CEO, DFO and Chief pilots Time frame… 1-3 days with OAA consultants and lecture basis
Phase 1 Phase 1 Briefing Executive Management decision Top priority… Fuel saving Flight Operations A review of ALL Operating Procedure Review ALL fuel critical areas Training of employees Change of culture
Phase 1 Phase 1 Training The challenge is to convince all flight crew member that a change in behaviour might be or is needed. The aviation business is generally conservative, and changes are sometimes met with scepticism. Many flight crew members operate and plan their operation like they always have. to
Phase 2 Course summary Green Module Flight crew awareness of how to operate the aircraft more fuel efficient Lower the operating costs of the airline, more profit to the airline and secure long-term success of the company More environmental friendly operation
Phase 2 Ground School Relevant theory will be covered Economical facts (and ETS if applicable) Environmental facts Aircraft performance & aerodynamics Engine deterioration Active flight planning
Phase 2 Flight Training Two simulator sessions Focusing on a fuel efficient operation during different LOFT sessions How to conduct a more fuel efficient flight operation Convince pilots that efficient flying can make a difference
Phase 3 Consultation and follow up performed 3x in first year To ensure that the airline continue to work with the program in a day-to-day operations To monitor the progress of the program and solve any issues External operational expertise is offered via Parc Aviation on demand for line training, line checks etc
Boeing fuel figures (examples) How much is a 1% reduction in fuel consumption worth, according to Boeing? Type Fuel saving/year/aircraft CO 2 reduction/year/aircraft B777265-340 000 litres670- 860 000 kg B767113-151 000 litres286-382 000 kg B75794- 132 000 litres239- 334 000 kg B73757-95 000 litres144-240 000 kg 1. Assumed typical aircraft utilization rates. Actual utilization rates may differ 2. Assumed density of JET-A1 = 0.8 kg/dm3. 1kg JET-A1 = 3.16 kg of CO 2
Fuel Savings for a Scheduled European Flight Assumptions: an average flight burn of 3500 kg, flight time 1:10 fuel price 0.7 kg daily FC(legs) = 6 Savings on burn/leg 1 % 2 % 3 % 4 % 5 % kg JET-A1 3570105140175 kg CO 2 111221332442553 Annual Savings kg 76650153300229950306600383250 Annual Savings Annual Savings 53655107310160965214620268275
A Good Example Some airlines have focused on these important issues in the last 2-3 years. In general, they have had some fuel saving campaign running, affecting the whole company. One European operator among others reports an improved fuel efficiency of 4%, an North American operator reports an improved fuel efficiency of 5%.
A flight from Stockholm to Berlin with a Twin jet operation, with a fuel burn of 3500 kg, some examples of fuel savings initiatives: Five minutes less APU usage 11 kg Single engine taxiing for 10 minutes58 kg Take-off with packs off 3 kg Acceleration altitude 800 ft instead of 1500 ft24 kg Optimum speed with a lowered Cost Index50 kg Landing with partial flap setting 8 kg Idle reverse on landing15 kg Engine wash program20 kg Weight reduction 500 kg (fuel or equipment)15 kg Removal of external dirt accumulation29 kg 233 kg A Good Example ( Hard)
A Good Example (soft) Flight crew chasing 1 min of short cuts45 kg Flying optimum altitudes at all times 66 kg Always enter winds aloft in FMS/FMGS45 kg A Continuous Descent Approach (CDA)50 kg Σ206 kg Total hard+soft = 439 kgs of fuel burn Conclusion: Every kilo counts on every flight…..
Generic Business Case Charter Operator (small) with 10 A320 Estimate 6 crew per A/C = 60 crew Yearly fuel cost 8million x 10 = 80million Savings potential 4-6% = 3-5 million per year Extra direct mandatory investment needed for the Operator on market price should give a return of investment of less than 12 months
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