3Forming Presidential Powers Many presidential powers have developed over time and are not in the ConstitutionDefining factors of shaping the office of presidency in its modern form:The ConstitutionInfluence and personal charisma of the presidentThe mandate expressed will of the people
4List of Presidential Powers Commander in chief of armed forcesAppoints the head of executive departments (Cabinet)Conducts foreign policy (treaties/appoint ambassadors)Appoint federal court judgesPardon people convicted of federal crimes (except impeachment or reduction of jail time or fine)Enforce the lawsGives an annual State of the Union addressCall Congress into special session, if necessary
5Informal Sources of Power Jefferson purchased land for the countryT. Roosevelt said “do anything that the needs of the nation demanded…”Abraham Lincoln Suspended the writ of habeas corpusRaised an army without approvalBlockaded the ports in the South illegallyF.D. Roosevelt set up many federal programs
6Mandate of the People Mandate: strong popular support A source of power for the presidentMany presidents used the media to gain mandate from the country
7Limits on Presidential Power Bureaucracy can:Hinder president’s programs by:failing to give information neededmisinterpreting instructionsnot completing a task properlyPublic opinion can:Keep a president from attempting to run for re-electionCondemn a presidential actionCongress can:override a president’s vetoimpeach the presidentgrant moneyconfirm presidential nominationsFederal courts can:Review legislative actions that the president supports
9HEAD OF STATE / CHIEF EXECUTIVE The president is BOTH the head of state and chief executivePresides over ceremoniesCarries out the lawsHow are they carried out?Executive ordersPresidential appointmentsRight to remove officials that they have appointedImpoundment – refuse to spend money Congress has given an agency or departmentReprieve – postponement of legal punishmentPardon – release from legal punishmentAmnesty – a group pardon to people for an offense against the gov’t
10CHIEF LEGISLATOR Proposes legislation he/she wishes to see enacted Outlines his/her legislative program in the annual State of the Union addressHis/her staff writes the legislation for CongressHe/she must work with members of both political parties to pass his/her legislationHe/she has the power to veto bills
11ECONOMIC PLANNER Submits an annual economic report to Congress Prepares the federal budget each year
12PARTY LEADERHelps members of his/her political party who seek offices (mayor, governor, senator, representative)Raise fundsGive speechesGive endorsements
13CHIEF DIPLOMAT Make treaties and sign Make executive agreements with other countriesSame legal status as treaties, but do not need the Senate’s approvalRecognizes the governments of foreign countries
14COMMANDER IN CHIEF Power to order a military action Must get Congress’ approval to declare warMakes important military decisions
16Styles of LeadershipSome presidents choose to get involved in the details of their administration (President Jimmy Carter)While others delegate the detail work to the EOP and the White House staff (President Ronald Reagan).
17Leadership Qualities & Skills Understanding the publicAbility to communicate effectivelySense of timingOpenness to New IdeasAbility to CompromiseHave political courage
18Presidential Isolation The President’s world (White House) is constructed to meet his needs and to support his views.Staff members are discouraged to disagree with the President.Only a few (top advisors, staff members) are allowed access to the President.Information may be screened by top advisors before it reaches the president.It is difficult for the President to stay in touch with the public.
19The Use of Executive Privilege: Executive privilege: the right of the president and other high-ranking executive officers, with the president’s consent, to refuse to provide information to Congress or a courtThis is based on the principle of SEPARATION OF POWERS as outlined in the ConstitutionThe extent of the President’s use of executive privilege remains controversial