2Enduring Understanding You will understand that……how artists portray themselves andpeople they encounter in a variety ofways.
3Essential Questions Overarching What is a portrait? What are human relations?Topical- What is the role of women in society?- How does media perpetuate identities?
4Essential Questions Overarching What is a portrait? The art of representing the physical orpsychological likeness of a real orimaginary individual. The principal portraitmedia are painting, drawing, sculpture,and photography. From earliest times theportrait has been considered a means toimmortality. Many cultures have attributedmagical properties to the portrait:symbolization of the majesty or authorityof the subject, substitution for a deceasedindividual's living presence or theft of thesoul of the living subject.
55W1H When 1954 How Where Photography USA Cindy Sherman Why A woman in A male dominatedSociety.WhatIssues of Modern WorldRole of WomanRole of ArtistWhichPostmodern ArtWhereUSAWhen1954CindySherman5W1H
6Bio-Data 1954: Born in Glenn Ridge, New Jersey. : Studied photography at Buffalo State College1977: The start of her Untitled Film Stills.1980: The creation of her Rear-Screen Projections where she played dress-up like those film stills and paraded against a projected slide background).: The Disasters and Fairy Tales series.: The History Portraits.1992: Sex Pictures1997: Directorial Debut- Office Killer
7Where USA The advent of television. B movies- motion pictures produced in a low or modest budget.National Endowment of the Arts was created in It is an agent that supports and fund art projects (like our National Arts Council).NEA cuts funding in due to Andres Serrano’s Piss Christ.
8Women in film noir (Background information) Film stills from actual film noir movies. How are the women being portrayed here?
9Women in film noir (Background information) The quintessential femme fatale of film noir uses her sexual attractiveness and ruthless cunning to manipulate men in order to gain power, independence, money, or all three at once. She rejects the conventional roles of devoted wife and loving mother that mainstream society prescribes for women, and in the end her transgression of social norms leads to her ownThe femme fatale's destructive break for freedom in The Lady from Shanghai (1948) destruction and the destruction of the men who are attracted to her. Film noir's portrayal of the femme fatale, therefore, would seem to support the existing social order — and particularly its rigidly defined gender roles — by building up the powerful, independent woman, only to punish her in the end.But a closer look at film noir suggests an opposite interpretation. Even when it depicts women as dangerous and worthy of destruction, film noir also shows that women are confined by the roles traditionally open to them - that their destructive struggle for independence is a response to the restrictions that men place on them.
10Untitled Film Stills Series Gelatin silver print., 18 x 24 cm
11Untitled Film Still #6Hollywood actress Rita Hayworth
12Untitled Film Stills Series Gelatin silver print., 17.9 x 24 cm
13Untitled Film Stills Series Gelatin silver print, 76.2 x cm
14Untitled Film Stills Series Gelatin silver print, 19 x 24.1 cmMoMa, New York
15Centerfold series Untitled Film Still #87, 1981 Chromogenic print, 59.2 x cm
17Untitled (Marilyn) Untitled (Marilyn), 1982 Chromogenic print, 39.4 x 23.3 cmSFMOMA, San Francisco
18Rear-Screen Projections Untitled Film Still #66, Rear-screen projections with colour photograph, 38.9 x 59.5 cmUntitled Film Still #75, Rear-screen projections, 50.8 x 61 cm
19Disasters and Fairy Tales Series Untitled Film Still #130, 140, & 157
20Untitled Film Still #188, 1989 Colour photograph, 110.5 x 166.4 cm Disaster SeriesUntitled Film Still #188, 1989 Colour photograph, x cmMoMA, New York
21Disasters and Fairy Tales Series She uses mannequin and prosthesis for the first time in this series of work.It is a display of beauty and violence.She addresses the victimization of women- as an object used and discarded.
22“the images are little more than smug parodies of classical art portraiture and make no emotional connection, or provoke any inner exploration by the viewer” – review by a critic
23The images in the History series either relate directly to images in classical European painting (the so-called Old Masters), or relate more generally to types found during that period. Although she created the series in (arguably) Europe’s greatest living museum, La Citta Eterna (the Eternal City), incredibly she claims that she derived her inspiration vicariously. She’s been quoted as saying, “When I was doing those history pictures I was living in Rome but never went to the churches and museums there. I worked out of books, with reproductions. It’s an aspect of photography I appreciate conceptually: the idea that images can be reproduced and seen anytime, anywhere, by anyone.” That said, the photos remain original conceptions, loosely based upon but not duplicates of original works.
24Untitled #183, 193, 199, 204, 205, respectively The History PortraitsUntitled #183, 193, 199, 204, 205, respectively
25Cindy Sherman. Untitled #205. c.1989 Raphael. La Fornarina. c Oil on panel. Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica, Rome, ItalyCindy Sherman. Untitled #205. c.1989
26The History PortraitsThese are taken from the portraitures done by the old masters- Caravaggio and Raphael.Sherman mimics the poses and backgrounds.There are altogether 35 renderings of these old portraits.There’s an element of quirky humour in the works.They are exaggerations of the conventional male and female stereotypes in Western art.
27Untitled Film Still #253 & 261 (Cropped) Sex PicturesUntitled Film Still #253 & 261 (Cropped)
28Sex Pictures SeriesThis series of works comprise of huge colour photographs.Dummies, medical dolls and prosthesis are used in “caught in the act”arrangement.The works are in-your-face, offensive and disturbing to some buthumorous to others.It is a reaction to pornography- women as sexual objects and ugliness.It is also a reaction against American double-standard of conservatism-Between art and obscenity.
30What Gender stereotypes in popular culture- women. Subject matter - the body. She models a type and not herself. She constructs a myriad of female identity.Gender stereotypes in popular culture- women.Women and vulnerability or women and their roles in a male-dominated society.She questions the notion of beauty and ugliness in an image-based society- beauty perpetuated by the media.Voyeurism- viewing through the masculine eye.Real vs. reel- what is real and what is reel?Her works- a mixture of desire and sexual fantasy, apprehension, oppression and victimization.
31Why Background She has always enjoyed dressing up since young. She met fellow artist Robert Longo at Buffalo State University College.She formed Hallwalls, an independent artists’ space with Longo and Charles Clough.She began taking photographs of herself from 1977 as soon as she graduated. These photographs came to be known as the Untitled Film Stills (the most well-known and familiar work of Sherman’s).Sherman also acted in B- movies.
32WhichPostmodernpostmodernism or Postmodernism, architecture or literature that reacts against earlier modernist principles, as by reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style or by carrying modernist styles or practices to extremes. (artlex)Modernism- art movement that rejected the Victorian standards of how art should be made, consumed, and mean.
33Examples Romeo + Juliet by Baz Luhrmann Great Expectations by Alfonso Cuarón
34How Photography - Using herself and dress-up as intended characters. - Sherman leaves her photographs untitled and numbered- an act of de-personalizing the portraits.- Sherman makes the characters in the photographs ambiguous- there’s no trait of herself in the photographs.
35How The use of dolls and prosthetics. Make up, fake nails, assorted wigs, actual clothes, costumes,found objects.- She aims to provoke her audience with her photographs.- She started with black and white “film noir” style before working in colour.