Presentation on theme: "AI – Based Mobile Robotics1. 2 What is a robot ? A machine that operates autonomously or by remote control. A human-like with human capabilities? The."— Presentation transcript:
2 What is a robot ? A machine that operates autonomously or by remote control. A human-like with human capabilities? The unconditional servant ? A highly flexible machine. The intelligent connection of perception to action. A robot is an autonomous machine able to sense, reasoning, and act, adaptively.
AI – Based Mobile Robotics3 What is Sensing ? Collect information about the world. Sensor - an electrical/mechanical/chemical device that maps an environmental attribute to a quantitative measurement. Each sensor is based on a transduction principle - conversion of energy from one form to another Also known as transducers.
AI – Based Mobile Robotics4 Why do robots need sensors?
AI – Based Mobile Robotics5 Why do robots need sensors?
AI – Based Mobile Robotics6 Why do robots need sensors?
AI – Based Mobile Robotics7 Why do robots need sensors?
AI – Based Mobile Robotics8 Sensing for specific tasks
AI – Based Mobile Robotics9 Sensors Being Used up? distance -> ultrasound, sonar, infrared light level -> photo cells, cameras sound level -> microphones strain -> strain gauges rotation -> encoders magnetism -> compasses (PSUBOT) smell -> chemical (fire detector) temperature -> thermal, infra red inclination -> inclinometers, gyroscopes pressure -> pressure gauges
AI – Based Mobile Robotics10 Sensor examples Camera Encoders BumpersEncoders Sonar Rings Rear View Camera
AI – Based Mobile Robotics11 Actuator examples Microphone Gripper Motors Speaker
AI – Based Mobile Robotics12 A reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. " … Robot Institute of America, 1979 A machine able to extract information from its environment and use knowledge about its world to move safely in a meaningful and purposive manner ….Robot Industry Association An automatic device that performs functions normally ascribed to humans or a machine in the form of a human. …Websters Dictionary Formal Definition of a 'robot
AI – Based Mobile Robotics13 Two major types of robots (i) Industrial robots - Operates in a stable deterministic environment - Normally fixed or restricted mobility -Structured factory environment closed world - Operates according to a relatively simple program. (ii) Mobile robots - Operates in the real world. - Moves around -Unstructured world open world - Requires a high degree of autonomy
AI – Based Mobile Robotics14 What is Robotics ? Robotics is: the Intelligent Connection of Perception to Action Robotics is: the Intelligent Connection of Perception to Action Reality Robot Actuators Sensors Perception Action
AI – Based Mobile Robotics15 LocalizationCognition Motion control Perception Real world Where am I? Where am I going? How do I get there? Motion control Perception
AI – Based Mobile Robotics16 What is Intelligence? –K–Knowledge: Information gained from text books and other reading materials... –I–Intelligence: (Heuristics) - That gives power to apply knowledge on a problem. - Ability to adapt ones behaviour to fit new circumstances. - Degree of reasoning and learned behavior
AI – Based Mobile Robotics17 Components of intelligence Learning Reasoning Problem Solving Perception Language understanding Genuine understanding
AI – Based Mobile Robotics18 AI is the Intelligence implemented in a computer system. –A–AI is the science and engineering of making intelligent machines which can perform tasks that require intelligence when performed by humans … –…–…"nothing more" than advanced algorithms research –A–AI = search + knowledge + learning –A–A.I. is not practical <- -> What is practical is not A.I. –The branch of computer science that concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior. What is AI ?
AI – Based Mobile Robotics19 AI why being not practical? –A–A.I. is not practical <- -> What is practical is not A.I. –A–AI = search + knowledge + learning –A–AI != search + wisdom +learning knowledge is not practical. wisdom is practical. its just like Einstein and Grahembell are counted as intelligent but Solomon and Birbal as wise
AI – Based Mobile Robotics20 So, What is AI-based Mobile Robotics? It is nothing rather than … Intelligent Robots
AI – Based Mobile Robotics21 What is An Intelligent Robot An autonomous system which exists in the physical world, can sense its environment, and can act on it to achieve some goals.
AI – Based Mobile Robotics22 Autonomous Mobile Robots have to Solve Difficult Problems Where am I? Localization Problem How do I get there? Path Finding Problem How do I find the door? Object Recognition Problem What are you asking me to do? Language Understanding Problem How can I tell you the answer to your question? Speech Generation Problem
AI – Based Mobile Robotics23 Sensing the Environment Sensors allow the robot to perceive its environment to get information that allows it to make decisions
AI – Based Mobile Robotics24 Acting on the Environment Robots have effectors that allow it to change the state of the world
AI – Based Mobile Robotics25 Achieving a Goal Achieving a goal requires intelligent decision making
AI – Based Mobile Robotics37 Intelligent Robot? Mechanical Engineering Electrical Engineering Computer Science
AI – Based Mobile Robotics38 Combining these fields we can create a system that can… SENSE PLAN ACT
AI – Based Mobile Robotics39 How will it perceive the world? How to represent knowledge about world? Need to understand language? What kind of planning does it do? What kind of problem solving does it do? How rapidly can it search its knowledge base for answers? In Short: Intelligent Robot concerned with:
AI – Based Mobile Robotics40 REFERENCES Books Introduction to Autonomous Mobile Robots, R Siegwart and I Nourbaksh, Bradford Introduction to AI Robotics, R Murphy, Bradford Winston P H, Artificial Intelligence (3rd Edition) Addition Wesley 1992. Rich E Knight K, Artificial Intelligence(2nd Edition)(ISBN 0-070-522-634) McGraw Hill 1991. Websites http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/robots/roboteers/index.shtml http://www.cache.ucr.edu/~currie/roboadam.htm http://www.robotz.org http://www.robotics.org http://www.roboti.cs.siue.edu http://www.traclabs.com /~korten