10What is artificial intelligence and how is it different from robotics as we know it? In current robotics, all robot behavior must be programmed into the robot.Artificial intelligence is the ability of the robot to select which behavior or program to run.
11Difference in Robots and Humans Machines can recall data and do math much faster than humans. They are more rugged than we are.Humans are much better at recognizing patterns. They are more creative. Humans can adapt to change much faster than robots.
12Major Fields of Robotics Operator Interface: A robot must be able to communicate with its human controllerMobility or locomotion: How the robot gets from place to placeManipulators and effectors:The parts of the robot thatinteract with objects bytouching things, pickingthem up, placing them incontainers, etc.
13Major Fields of Robotics Programming – How you talk to a machine.Sensing and perception –A robot needs informationfrom sensors to knowabout its surroundings
14Difference between Autonomous and TeleOp An autonomous robot is controlled by its internal computer.A teleop or teleoperated robot is controlled by a human using a control device remotely.
15Ways to teleop a robot:Virtual Reality (VR) immerse the operator in a real-time control environment.
16Ways to teleop a robot:Biofeedback or neurofeedback using an EEG. Very useful for people who have lost a limb or are paralyzed.
18Mobility or Locomotion Electric motors – DC (direct current) are used to created rotational movementServos – Work by electricity and also created rotational movementLinear Actuators – pneumatics or hydraulics and created a lot of force very quicklyRotary actuators – much like linear only force is rotational
19How can robots move?Muscle wire – actually contracts when electricity is run through it. Shape Memory Alloy or SMA;
20How can robots move? Electroactive polymers can contract up to 400 percent when electricityis applied. Used forhumanoid robots
21How can robots move?Two-wheeled balancing – robot uses sensors to stay balancedOne-wheeled balancing – robot uses a single wheel or ball and still maintains balanceSix-wheeled robots – multiple wheelsWalking robots -
22How can robots move?Walking robots – Like Honda’s ASIMO these robots are called bipeds.
23How can robots move?Flying robots – Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) fly in front of patrols so soldiers can spot ambushes.
24How can robots move? Underwater robots – used for recovery, mapping, exploration and clean-up
25How can robots move? Climbing robots – Use gecko-like mechanisms to climb
26Manipulators and End Effectors Some people refer to the hand of a robot as an end-effector or effector and the arm as a manipulator.Mechanical Gripper
28Manipulators and End Effectors Magnetic GrippersIngressive Grippers
29SensorsRobots must know: Where am I? Where do I need to go? What is in my way?Robots use cameras for eyesRobots use microphones for earsRobots use touch sensors for touchGPS Sensors for coordinatesRadar transmitters for objects in the wayInfrared sensors detect heat
30Pseudo CodePseudo code is “pictures” or tiles of code that you can experiment with rather than actually programming
31Center of GravityCenter of Gravity, the point at which all of the weight of an object appears to be concentrated. If an object rotates when thrown, the center of gravity is also the center of rotation. It is important for automobiles and trucks to have their centers of gravity located close to the road, because a low center of gravity gives them stability.
32Support PolygonThe support polygon is the imaginary polygon formed by connecting the points where the robot touches the supporting surface.A triangle is the most stable stationary polygon.The most stable polygon for movement is a rectangle.
33Two-point ruleTwo-point rule says that you need two points of connection on structural pieces.
34Vulnerable Robot Elements Anything that is sticking out and subject to being rammed or run-over