2OverviewMagnetismElectromagnetismIntroduction to Multimeters
3MagnetismMagnetism is force of attraction or repulsion of certain types of metallic substances.
4Magnets have North and South POLES MagnetismThe Law of Magnetic Force states: Unlike magnetic poles attract and like magnetic poles repel.Magnets have North and South POLES
5The stronger the magnetic field, the more flux lines. MagnetismThe effects of the attraction and repulsion are explained by assuming the existence of invisible lines of force. The invisible lines of force are called flux lines. They go from north to south outside of the magnet. Flux lines are more concentrated at the poles thus a stronger magnetic pull.NSThe stronger the magnetic field, the more flux lines.
6MagnetismMagnetic material is affected by the flux lines of a magnet and takes on the characteristics of a magnet. We use certain terminology to describe the differences in magnetic properties.Magnetic material are those that magnets attract. Materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt and steel.Non Magnetic are those that magnets do not attract. Materials such as aluminum, copper, lead, silver, wood and glass.Permeability the ease in which a material can become magnetized.Retentivity the ability of a material to retain its magnetism after you remove the magnetizing force.
7The more aligned, the stronger the magnetic field. ElectromagnetismThe source of magnetism in materials is the direction of spinning electrons as they orbit the nuclei of atoms.Electromagnetism is a man-made form of magnetism. It is made by applying electricity to magnetic materials.A magnetic field is created when most of the electrons are caused to spin in the same direction.The more aligned, the stronger the magnetic field.
8ElectromagnetismWhen electrons flow through a conductor, a circular magnetic field develops around the conductor. This current is responsible for developing the magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is directly proportional to how much current is flowing through the conductor.If the direction of the electron flow in a conductor is known, the direction of the flux lines in the magnetic field can be determined. The relationship between electron flow and the direction of the magnetic field is called the “Conductor Left-Hand Rule”.
9ElectromagnetismConductor Left-Hand Rule: When the left hand is placed so the thumb points in the direction of electron flow, the curled fingers point in the direction of the magnetic field flux lines that circle the conductor.
10ElectromagnetismAn example of a working electromagnet is one of the huge cranes that moves junk and scrap iron in a wrecking yard.The crane magnet is a big block of iron that is magnetized by an electrical current flowing through the coil. To pick up the scrap iron, the operator turns on the electrical current, which magnetizes the block of iron. The magnetized block of soft iron attracts the scrap iron and picks it up.To release the scrap iron, the operator turns off the electrical current, which demagnetizes the block of iron.
11ElectromagnetismMagnetomotive Force is the magnetizing force set up due to current flowing in a coil. The magnetomotive force is directly proportional to the current in amperes and to the number turns in the coil.
12ElectromagnetismThe closer to the conductor, the stronger the concentration of Magnetomotive Force.
13Electromagnetism Magnetic Field Strength is determined by: Several factors affect the magnetic field strength or intensity of an electromagnet formed by a coil. Knowing how these factors affect the strength of the field around a coil, a magnetic field of a given strength can be produced.Magnetic Field Strength is determined by:The number of coil windings.The more windings the stronger the magnetic fieldThe distance between windings.The closer together the windings, the stronger the magnetic field.The amount of current.The more current, the stronger the magnetic field.Composition of the core.
14ElectromagnetismElectromagnets have many uses in electronic devices. Some of their most important uses are in relays, circuit breakers and meters.Relays are electronic switches that are very useful in many places , such as on a main control panel.Circuit breakers electronic devices which open or trip a circuit when an overload condition is sensed.Most meters used for electrical measurements operate on the principle of magnetism. The action of the basic DC meter is based on the principle of a motor.
15ElectromagnetismRelays are switches that use an electromagnet to attract the metal arm of a switch. They give you the ability to close a switch in an electronic circuit without being near the switch.As current energizes the electromagnet, it attracts the steel plate armature. The armature swings on the swivel toward the electromagnet and connects itself with the stationary contact.Relays are used for signal control or for power control.
16ON OFF Electromagnetism “tripped” In a Circuit Breaker, when a surge in current creates a magnetic field in the coil, it attracts the magnet, causing the switch to open.ResetConductorOFF“tripped”ONCURRENT SURGEContactsConductor
17ON OFF Electromagnetism “tripped” Once the reset is pressed on the Circuit Breaker, the switch is closed.ResetConductorOFF“tripped”ONContactsConductor
18ElectromagnetismThe action of the basic DC Meter is based on the principle of a motor. The motor or turning action results from the flow of a small current through a moving coil positioned in a fixed magnetic field.How far the coil turns against the force of the spring tension depends on how much current is flowing through the electromagnetic coil.
19MultimetersA Multimeter is one of a group of test instruments called test equipment. These devices are useful for basic fault finding and field service work. A meter is a device that measures a quantity in a circuit to a very high degree of accuracy.
20Multimeters measure voltage, current and resistance. Multimeters are either analog or digital. Analog meters use a needle or point to display values. Digital meters have a digital display. Both, analog and digital, vary in size, shape, and power requirements.DigitalAnalogMultimeters measure voltage, current and resistance.
21MultimetersThe heart of an analog multimeter is a D'Arsonval (or Weston) meter movement.This device uses DC current passing through a coil and magnet assembly to swing a pivot-mounted needle. The amount of current flowing through the coil determines how far the needle will swing. The selector dial on the front of the meter determines the type of filtering the test value will go through, whether it is fixed resistances, rectifiers or an internal voltage source. The needle is moved according to the magnetic field developed inside the meter.
22A typical multimeter has five control sections. MultimetersA typical multimeter has five control sections.Display section shows the value of the measurement taken.Zero Adjustmentsets the analog meter’s needle to zero before making a measurementRange Selector Switch is used to select the size of the measurement that will be taken.Input Jacks are uses to connect test leads to the multimeter.Function Switch chooses which electrical value to measure.
23Multimeters DCV - Com + V Multimeters measure voltage, current and resistance. Voltage is the difference in potential between two parts of a circuit. The meter must be set-up correctly before you measure voltage. A meter that is incorrectly set-up can cause personal injury or equipment damage.To measure voltage ensure:Display is zeroed.Set function switch to voltage.Select the range.Ensure test leads are properly placed to make a voltage measurement.DCV- Com+ V
24Reading Voltage Measurements: MultimetersReading Voltage Measurements:Analog multimeters use different scales (30, 12, or 6) based on the Function/Range switch.The Reading is 1.0 Volts DC
25Reading Voltage Measurements: MultimetersReading Voltage Measurements:The Range switch also indicates the multiplier of the Display scale reading.The Reading is 100 Volts DC
26Reading Voltage measurements: MultimetersReading Voltage measurements:Compare the Range Switch and the Display scale reading to get the correct measurement.The Reading is 20 Volts DC
27Reading Voltage Measurements: MultimetersReading Voltage Measurements:AC Voltage can also be read using the same scales on the Display. The 12 scale includes readings for 1000.The Reading is 400 Volts AC
28Multimeters DCA - Com + A Multimeters measure voltage, current and resistance. The meter must be placed "IN" the circuit to measure current. Remember current is the flow of electrons. The electrons must flow through the meter. In order for current to flow through the meter, the circuit must be broken (opened) and the meter inserted.- Com+ ADCA
29Multimeters DCA - Com + A Some circuits have switches to open the circuit to measure current. If the switches are not available, the trick is to find the easiest place to break into the circuit. One way is to lift the end of a component and then insert the meter between two components. Another possibility is to lift the negative side of the battery.- Com+ ADCA
30Reading Current Measurements: MultimetersReading Current Measurements:Current can be read using the same scale on the Display, based on the Range switch.The Reading is 10m Amps DC
31Multimeters OHMS - Com + Ω Multimeters measure voltage, current and resistance. Resistance is the opposition to current. Remember, never measure resistance in a circuit with power applied.Note: The meter supplies the power, if the equipment is powered on, it will give false reading and may damage the equipment.To measure Resistance ensure:Display is zeroedSet function switch to Ohms.Select the range.Ensure test leads are properly placed to make a voltage measurement. The red lead must be connected to the Ω input jack and the black lead must be connected to the common input jack.OHMS- Com+ Ω
32Multimeters OHMS + Ω - Com When measuring resistance, if there are two or more resistors in series, the leads are placed across one resistor, the meter will read that resistor. If the leads are placed across two resistors, the meter will read the total resistance of both resistors.In a parallel circuit with two branches or more and a resistor in each branch, place the leads across either resistor and the meter will read the total resistance. To measure the resistance of one resistor in parallel, it must be isolated from the rest of the circuit because each branch is connected electrically.OHMS- Com+ Ω
33Reading Resistance Measurements: MultimetersReading Resistance Measurements:Resistance can be read using the “OHMS” scale on the Display, based on the Range switch.The Reading is 60k Ohms
34Multimeters OHMS - Com + Ω A continuity check is the test or check you make to find out if continuity exists between two points in a circuit. A continuity check is the first check you make when troubleshooting an electrical circuit. By making a continuity check, it can be determined whether or not the system wiring is in order. If there is a broken wire or other conductor, a continuity check will pinpoint the problem for you.- Com+ ΩOHMS
35Multimeters OHMS - Com + Ω To make a continuity check, place the test leads across the two points in the circuit that need verification. If no break exists, there is continuity. A multimeter with no built-in continuity checker responds by giving you a low resistance reading. If the reading is high, excess resistance exists in the circuit. In this case, there would be a need for further checks.- Com+ ΩOHMS
36Summary Magnetism is an invisible force that can do mechanical work. The Law of Magnetic Force states: Unlike magnetic poles attract and like magnetic poles repel.The factors affecting the strength of an electromagnet coil are:The number of coil windings.The distance between windings.The amount of current.Composition of the core.Magnetmotive force is the magnetizing force set up when current flows from an electromagnetic coil.
37SummaryA Multimeter is an electronic test instrument, which measures and displays quantities of voltage, current, and resistance.The meter must be set-up correctly before you measure voltage. A meter that is incorrectly set-up can cause personal injury or equipment damage.The meter must be placed "IN" the circuit to measure current.Never measure resistance in a circuit with power applied.A continuity check is the test or check you make to find out if continuity exists between two points in a circuit.