Electrical Terms Voltage –Electromotive force (EMF): force needed to push or pull an electron out of orbit Measured in volts using a voltmeter Current –Flow of electricity –Number of electrons flowing per second Measured in amperes
Circuitry and Ohm’s Law Series circuit: current flows equally through all parts –Resistances of all loads add up Parallel circuit: starts from a common point and branches –Total resistance is less than the sum of individual resistances Series-parallel circuits: combine two types Ohm’s law: voltage, amperage, and resistance relationship
Magnetic Fields Magnets have polarity –Like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract Electromagnetism –Magnetic field is created around outside of conductor Electromagnetic induction: –Electricity is produced by moving magnetic field over a conductor Relay: magnetically controlled switch
Capacitors Store electricity –Used to absorb voltage changes Connected in parallel in a DC circuit –In AC circuit electricity flows through capacitor as part of the wiring Made of two pieces of foil separated by insulator –Ground side connected to one piece of foil –Positive side connected to the other
Automotive Electronics Electrical components: use mechanical parts –Electronic systems: use solid state parts Semiconductor: acts as insulator and conductor –Common materials are silicon and germanium Diode: allows electricity to flow in only one direction Transistor: electronic relay –Resists electrical flow or allows a predetermined amount of current to flow
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