Presentation on theme: "Lecture Notes on AI & NN Chapter 1 Introduction to Intelligence Theory Section 2 Intelligence Theory & Information Science."— Presentation transcript:
Lecture Notes on AI & NN Chapter 1 Introduction to Intelligence Theory Section 2 Intelligence Theory & Information Science
Basic Definitions Information: The state, the way the state changes Knowledge: The states, the rule the states change Intelligence: The ability to obtain the related information to process the information for knowledge to produce the intelligent strategy for solving the problem under the environment and achieving the goal.
Why is IT related to IS ? Information Refining Knowledge Activation InformationKnowledgeIntelligence Information is the raw material on the world Knowledge is a special product of information processing Intelligence is the activation of knowledge (information)
Information Transferring Information Transferring Information Proc. & Regen. Information Execution Information Acquisition Problem in Real World Why is IT related to IS ? InformationKnowledgeIntelligent Strategy Goal
Lecture Notes on AI & NN Chapter 1 Introduction Section 3 Applications of Intelligence Theory
Intelligent Communication Networks Intelligent Computer Intelligent Control Intelligent Information Services on Internet
HomeWorks: 1. Distinguish the following concept: information, knowledge, intelligence. 2. List possible applications of intelligence theory in your own field. 3. How do you think of the relationship between intelligence theory and information science ?
Lecture Notes on AI & NN Chapter 2 Mathematical Preparation Section 1 Propositional Logic Section 2 Predicate Logic Section 3 Unification of Expressions Section 4 Conversion of Wff into Clauses Section 5 Formal Language & Automata
Lecture Notes on AI & NN Chapter 3 Information Acquisition Section 1 Manual Approach Section 2 Pattern Recognition Section 3 Neural Networks Section 4 Machine Learning
Lecture Notes on AI & NN Chapter 4 Information Representation A General Introduction
Objectives: 1. Make the information convenient to use 2. Make it recognizable to machines Requirements: 1. Powerful in expression 2. Easy to be understood by machine 3. Convenient to be manipulated The Key Points of Representation: The states and the way of states varying should be suitably represented.
Section 1 Logic Approach Both propositional and predicate logic can be used. The latter is however more powerful than the former. Examples: Robot Table A Table B The Alcove Box
Situation Representation 1) AT (ROBOT, ALCOVE) EMPTYHANDED (ROBOT) ON (BOX, A) TABLE (A) TABLE (B) 2) AT (ROBOT, A) HOLDS (ROBOT, BOX) TABLE (A) TABLE (B)
Operation Representation Pick up Box from A Condition: ON (BOX, A) AT (ROBOT, A) EMPTYHANDED (ROBOT) Delete: EMPTYHANDED (ROBOT) ON (BOX, A) Add: HOLDS (BOX) Action Series (Plan) Representation Asking robot at alcove to move box from A
Homework Represent & solve the given problem by logic approach The Monkey & Bananas Problem A hungry monkey finds himself in a room in which a bunch of bananas is hanging from the ceiling. The monkey, unfortunately, cannot reach the bananas. However, in the room there is also a desk. The ceiling is just the right height so that a monkey standing on a desk could knock the bananas down. What is the best sequence of actions for the monkey to take the bananas ?
Section 2 State Space, Graph, & Semantic Net 2-1 State Space Examples The health information can be represented by body temperature, blood pressure, complexion, number of white-blood-cell, … The nation development can be represented by output of industry, output of agriculture, education index, expenses index, …
A General form of state-space-mapping Example: The game of coins turning-over Suppose that one has 3 coins with S and G given. It is allowed to turn 1 piece of the coins over at a time. Is it possible to transform the coins from S to G in 3 turnings ? +-- +++ -- - Start State S Goal States G
001 101 111011 010 110 100000 f1 f2 f1 f3 f1 f2 f1 f3 f2 f3 2#=S 7# =G 0#=G 1# 5# 3# 6# 4#
Homeworks: The Missionaries & Cannibals Problems Three missionaries (Ms) and three cannibals (Cs) happen to meet on one side of a river. They all want to get to the other side. Unfortunately, there is only one boat available which can carries two people at a time. It is a well-known rule that whenever the number of Ms is less than that of Cs, the Ms will be eaten by Cs. The problem is now that how everyone can get across the river without Ms being eaten.