2World War I (US view)President Wilson- declares US neutrality, but the Lusitania is sunk in 1915 by GermanyUnrestricted Submarine Warfare- used by the Germans to sink all ships near Europe, the U.S. complainsZimmerman telegram- letter Germany sends to Mexico asking them to attack the U.S. and they would help fight us, President Wilson declares war
3Domestic Impact of WW I Women at work – 1st time ever Selective Service Act (draft)– Random selection process so that all groups would be called into serviceWomen at work – 1st time everDaylight Savings Time- designed to save fuelMigration of workers – Mexicans and African-Americans took advantage of the open jobs in the north
5Great MigrationFrom , African-Americans migrate from the South to the NorthReasons-Escape Jim Crow Laws in the SouthJobs in factories in Northern cities during WWIAnger over not being treated equal after fighting for America in WWI
6Espionage and Sedition Act Espionage and Sedition Act – 20 year prison sentence for inciting rebellion in the armed forces or obstructing the draft.Sedition centered on anyone making disloyal or abusive remarks about the U.S. government
7Eugene DebsFormer leader of the AFL, now Socialist Party Presidential CandidateJailed in Atlanta for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act, speaking out against recruiting
8Wilson’s Fourteen Points Key ideas the President felt were needed to avoid another World WarLeague of Nations- suggested as a peacekeeping organizationSenate opposition- U.S. Senators reject the Treaty of Versailles in favor of isolationism, many believe the League would draw them into another European war
9Prohibition18th Amendment- banned the sale of alcohol in the United StatesPassed during the Progressive Era
10Women’s Suffrage 19th Amendment- Gave women the right to vote. Passed because women helped get the U.S. prepared during World War I
11CommunismPolitical belief in a one-party government ruled by a dictatorThere is no private ownership, all property is owned by the statePeople in the United States were afraid of this idea after World War I
12Red ScareThe fear of international communism, it was called the Red Scare because red was the color of the communist flag
13Immigrant Restriction The Quota System- This emerges as a reaction to the Red Scaresharply reduces European immigration1924, European arrivals cut to 2% of number of residents in 1890Discriminates against southern, eastern EuropeansProhibits Japanese immigration; causes ill will between U.S., JapanDoes not apply to Western Hemisphere; many Canadians, Mexicans enter
15Impact of the Automobile Henry Ford- The “Father of Mass Production” Assembly Line- Parts flow down a conveyer belt, each part a small section of a greater machine Division of Labor- Each person on an assembly line does one job repeatedly until a machine is put together. Mass Production- Assembly Line allows for high production of goods at a cheap cost. Model T- millions are made and sold in America cheaply by Ford
16Impact of Radio and Movies Mass Media- the use of radio and movies created movie stars in the United States and made sport’s figures celebrities
17Harlem RenaissanceHarlem, New York – a wave of creativity celebrating African culture spreads across the countryLangston Hughes – Notable author, poet, and play writer, Theme for English BJazz Age – a form of music from New OrleansKey Jazz Artists – Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong
18Irving Berlin and Tin Pan Alley Irving Berlin- Russian born, American musical composer Berlin wrote over 1,000 songs most famous are “God Bless America”, “White Christmas” Tin Pan Alley- located in New York City, it was the center of music in the world for 30 years. Irving Berlin worked here for a time.
19Causes of the Great Depression Distribution of wealth- Wages had not risen with corporate profits. Over 70% of Americans were living below the poverty line.Stock Market Speculation- was seen as a get rich quick scheme. Millions of Americans poured in money expecting to get rich.
20Causes of the Great Depression “Playing the market”- People began guessing on stock prices this is called speculation.Buying on Margin- allowed people to borrow for the cost of the stock but only paying 10% of the price.
21Causes of the Great Depression Consumption- the working class and poor can’t afford the products made by companiesOverproduction- Companies produced more than people could buy, so they cut wages to make money
22Causes Great Depression Government control- no regulation of businesses, led to high prices and low wagesFarms- income declines as people can’t buy their crops, farmers lose their farms
23The Great Depression Period of economic crisis lasting from 1929-1939 Economic crisis that caused 25% unemployment and worldwide povertyBanks Collapse- people panic and withdraw their money causing over 20% of all banks to close wiping out millions of savings accounts23
24President HooverPresident at the beginning of the Great Depression, he believed it was the responsibility of the state and local governments to help not the federal government,
25The Great Depression’s Effects Soup kitchens- offer free or low-cost foodBread lines- people line up for food from charities, public agencies. Americans find this shameful to stand in lines and reject them.
26The Great Depression’s Effects African Americans, Latinos have higher unemployment, lower payShantytowns- settle-ments consisting of shacks, arise in cities, people dig through garbage, beg for food and money
27HoovervillesUnemployed and homeless people begin living in shantytowns named after President Hoover
28Hoovervilles and Families Hoover was blamed primarily for the depression People who could not pay their mortgage needed alternative housing Villages named “Hoovervilles” Family- some break under the strain of the depression 1. Men- commit suicide and go into depression, use to taking care of the family most can’t find jobs leave their families. 2. Women- find jobs sewing, maid service, resented by their husbands. 3. Children- poorly fed, schools close, poor health, teenagers leave home looking for jobs.
29Psychological Effects of the Great Depression 1928–1932, suicide rate rises over 30%Admissions to state mental hospitals triplePeople give up health care, college, put off marriage, childrenStigma of poverty doesn’t disappear; financial security becomes goalMany show great kindness to strangersDevelop habit of saving and thriftiness
30Dust BowlLarge dust storms hit the plain states scattering soil and destroying crops; no money for farmersCaused by farmers overproduction of crops and a drought in Middle America
31The New DealProgram for reviving the economy during the Great DepressionBegun by President Franklin D. RooseveltMade up of the three R’s – relief, recovery, reform31
32Tennessee Valley Authority Created by Roosevelt as one of the major public works projects of the New DealBuilt a system of dams for hydroelectricity in the southCreated hundreds of jobs32
33Second New DealThese were the programs FDR started after the programs from the original New Deal failed to end the Great Depression
34The Wagner ActThe law established collective bargaining rights for workersPrevented companies from banning unions or firing union members
35Social Security Act 1. Retirement for people 65 an older One of the most important laws to pass has three parts1. Retirement for people 65 an older2. Unemployment insurance3. Aid paid to families with disabilities and children
36Eleanor RooseveltMost active first lady in history – wrote newspaper columns, gave speeches, traveled the countryServed as FDR’s social conscienceShe led the fight in America for Women’s, African-American and Human Rights
37Huey LongHuey Long- A senator and former governor of Louisiana he was immensely popular in his home state and America He wants to help the poor by taxing the wealthy to provide new programs to help the poor get out of poverty He challenges FDR for the Democratic nomination but is killed by an assassin the same year
38Court Packing BillSupreme Court- strikes down several New Deal laws as unconstitutional “Court-packing bill”- Roosevelt proposes that the president be allowed to appoint a new justice for each member over Reaction- Congress and the Press are outraged at Roosevelt for trying to tamper with the system of checks and balances. Roosevelt backs off his idea
39Neutrality ActsBy 1938 the American government is controlled by Isolationists who pass the Neutrality Acts:Prohibits the sale of weapons and travel by Americans to countries at warForbids the extension of trade or loans to nations at war
40A. Phillip RandolphCivil Rights leader of the 30’s and 40’s Threatened a march on D.C. before WWII, forcing FDR to ban segregation in government jobs and the defense industry Forces President Truman to ban segregation in the military in 1948