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23 rd ASEMEP National Technical Symposium Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability ESD Failure Analysis, Detection, and Simulation.

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Presentation on theme: "23 rd ASEMEP National Technical Symposium Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability ESD Failure Analysis, Detection, and Simulation."— Presentation transcript:

1 23 rd ASEMEP National Technical Symposium Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability ESD Failure Analysis, Detection, and Simulation Ray Nicanor M. Tag-at iNARTE: ESD NE HGST Phil. Corp, a Western Digital Company

2 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 2. Process Benchmarking Systematic Approach in ESD Auditing 3. ESD Assessment 4. Perform Measurements 5. Modeling and Simulation 6. ESD Control Conceptualization 1. Failure Mode Identification Course Outline

3 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 2. Process Benchmarking Systematic Approach in ESD Auditing 3. ESD Assessment 4. Perform Measurements 5. Modeling and Simulation 6. ESD Control Conceptualization 1. Failure Mode Identification Course Outline

4 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Product Failure Analysis and Characterization The severity of the failure will somehow provide some clues as to the source/s of ESD or EOS. This will confirm if indeed the failure is due to ESD or EOS, and not mechanical, contamination, or other defects. 1. Failure Mode Identification

5 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Electrical Overstress (EOS) and ESD have almost the same failure mechanism but differs on the sources. ESD Static or Transient Sources: The very fast (nano/picoseconds) ESD pulses. Low energy Often very small physical damage signatures 1. Failure Mode Identification Product Failure Analysis and Characterization ESD or EOS?

6 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability ESD Damage Direct ESD HBM, MM, and CDM Semiconductors (CMOS Capacitor) Magnetic Heads (GMR/TMR) Severity of damage depends on the source of ESD. Direct ESD happens when theres a discharge path. ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

7 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability ESD Damage ESD from Within Field Induced Model (FIM) ESD happens within the device itself by mere exposure to the electrostatic field. Good Damaged Magnetic Heads (TMR) ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

8 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability A device is electrically stressed over its specified limits in terms of voltage, current, and/or power/energy. EOS failure is the result of "long" duration stress events (millisecond duration or longer). EOS Dynamic or Continuous ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

9 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability EOS Damage EOS damage is often the result of the high temperatures experienced during the EOS event. External Visible bulge in mold compound Physical hole in mold compound Burnt/discolored mold compound Cracked package ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

10 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability EOS Damage Internal Melted or burnt metal Carbonized mold compound Signs of heat damage to metal lines Melted or vaporized bond wires Melted TMR ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

11 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Indications of EOS Failure signature from excessive load dump. Transistor failure of the emitter region of the die Fused wire bond. Metallization run on Op- Amp IC *images courtesy of ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

12 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Failure signature from repetitive thermal cycling combined with high current. Severely degraded recrystalized metal (400ºC) Indications of EOS ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

13 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Possible Causes of EOS Uncontrolled voltage surge on the power supply or testers. Voltage spikes due to internal PCB switching. Voltage spikes due to an external connection –capacitive charge on an external cable, antenna pick-up of external switching noise, inductive loads. Poor grounding resulting in excessive noise on the ground plane. Overshoot or undershoot during IO switching. EMI (electromagnetic interference) due to poor shielding in an electrically noisy environment. ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

14 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Distinguishing between ESD and EOS failures has always been of interest to failure analysts. Since ESD and EOS failure attributes depends on the following: nature of the electrical stress circuit design die lay-out, and fab process used It would be difficult (if not impossible) to come up with a catch-all manual to distinguish between EOS and ESD failures. Summary ESD or EOS? Product Failure Analysis and Characterization 1. Failure Mode Identification

15 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 2. Process Benchmarking Systematic Approach in ESD Auditing 3. ESD Assessment 4. Perform Measurements 5. Modeling and Simulation 6. ESD Control Conceptualization 1. Failure Mode Identification Course Outline

16 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Process Mapping/Traceability This will help in narrowing down the area to be audited. Highlighted are the ESD-potential processes or tools. 2. Process Benchmarking

17 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability What to Look For in an Identified Process? High-powered tools motors, transformers and HV power supplies, etc. Tools with pneumatics/mechanical movement or AC switching source of EMI. Tools with direct metal contact or probing to the ESDS. Process Mapping/Traceability 2. Process Benchmarking

18 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Whole Line/Fab ESD Partition Assessment Processes are being divided into different segments. ESD parametric testing is being done after each segment. Done to identify which process/es causes ESD failures. Process Partition Experiment 2. Process Benchmarking

19 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability New Tool/Process Split ESD Parametric Analysis ESD parametric test is done initially for the samples. This will serve as the baseline data. Samples are then split into equal parts. Experiment is then performed. ESD parametric test is then conducted and compared to the baseline data. Process Partition Experiment 2. Process Benchmarking

20 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 2. Process Benchmarking Systematic Approach in ESD Auditing 3. ESD Assessment 4. Perform Measurements 5. Modeling and Simulation 6. ESD Control Conceptualization 1. Failure Mode Identification Course Outline

21 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Assess what are the ESD events that the identified process might contribute. Note: This model is applicable to automated lines with less direct handling to ESD-sensitive devices. High Low Probability of Occurrence 3. ESD Assessment

22 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Recommended Measurements ESD Events Measurements CategoryParametersMethod Machine Model (MM) Static: - Non-powered Tools - Powered Tools But No Probing to ESDS VoltageStatic Charge Build-upElectrometer Current Transient NoiseTap Transient (CT-6) Ground NoiseContinuous Measurement (CT-6) Dynamic: - Testers - Powered Tools With Direct Probing to ESDS VoltageSignal AnalysisDifferential Voltage Current Ground Noise Measurement at the Probes (Static and Dynamic Mode) Continuous Measurement (CT-6) Tap Transient (Standby Mode) Tap Transient (CT-6) H-FieldsEMI Check EMI Sensor During Actual Testing/Probing 3. ESD Assessment

23 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Recommended Measurements…contd. ESD Events Measurements CategoryParametersMethod Charged Device Model (CDM) Resistance Material Resistance Check (High Charge Generation/Inhibition of Charge Dissipation) MOM Ground or Discharge PathDMM E-Fields Static Field Charge Check (FIM)Fieldmeter/Charge Plate Analyzer Point Charge CheckNanocoulomb Meter Voltage Tribocharge Check (Handling/Process/Operation) Electrometer Unbalanced IonizerElectrometer/CPM CurrentCDM Discharge CurrentTap Transient (CT-6) to the device 3. ESD Assessment

24 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 2. Process Benchmarking Systematic Approach in ESD Auditing 3. ESD Assessment 4. Perform Measurements 5. Modeling and Simulation 6. ESD Control Conceptualization 1. Failure Mode Identification Course Outline

25 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Voltage Static – From electrostatic charge. Dynamic – Potential from constant voltage sources such as testers or power supplies. - The difference in electric potential between two points. 4. Perform Measurements

26 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Voltage Measuring Equipment and Probes Electrometer Triax Probe Single-Ended Voltage Active Probe Voltage Active Differential Probe Digital Oscilloscope Keithley 6517A Electrometer 4. Perform Measurements Voltage

27 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Active Differential Probe and Oscilloscope Voltage Measurement - Dynamic Voltage To Oscilloscope Source (I) +/- Electronics Device Under Test (DUT) Voltage Active Differential Probe Measures the differential voltage between the channel that injects signal to the DUT. 4. Perform Measurements Voltage

28 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Current Static – Transient current from electrostatic charge / discharge. – Current leaks from tools, machines, or equipment. Can cause ground noise. - Flow of electric charge. Dynamic – Noise or glitch from HF signal of testers. 4. Perform Measurements - Energy sensitive devices are damaged by excessive current.

29 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Current Probes Tek CT-1 and CT-2 Probes Tek CT-6 Probe 4. Perform Measurements Current

30 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Tap Transient Current Measurement - Static Tester or metallic tool with electrical circuits/motors Source (I) +/- Electronics Time (50 ns/div) Voltage (100 mV/div) Simulated Devices Resistance CT-6 Probe MM Transient Wave Form To Oscilloscope Simulated devices resistance. Tap Transient Testing for static measurement, at single shot mode. 4. Perform Measurements Current

31 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Continuous Ground Noise Measurement Current Measurement - Dynamic Noise Propagation from the Ground to the Jigs/Fixtures. Peak Current: 10.7 mA Freq: MHz Current Waveform CT-6 Probe Tool/Machine Jigs/Fixture Continuous Transient Testing for at dynamic condition, using Norm mode. 4. Perform Measurements Current

32 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Fields (E-Field and H-Field) Voltage/Current Transients = E-field Device Under Test (DUT) Probe Pins (Dipole) acts like antenna Source (I) +/- Electronics 4. Perform Measurements

33 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Field Probes 3M (Credence) EM Aware Sanki EMI Locator Novx 7000 Antenna Connected in Digital Oscilloscope 4. Perform Measurements Fields (E-Field and H-Field)

34 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 2. Process Benchmarking Systematic Approach in ESD Auditing 3. ESD Assessment 4. Perform Measurements 5. Modeling and Simulation 6. ESD Control Conceptualization 1. Failure Mode Identification Course Outline

35 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 5. PSPICE Modeling and Simulation SPICE Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis General-purpose circuit program that simulates electronic circuits. Used to perform various analyses: - time-domain response - frequency response, - operating points or transistors, and so on.

36 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 5. PSPICE Modeling and Simulation PSPICE on ESD Mostly, the Transient Analysis is being used in ESD Simulation. Transient Analysis: - Used for circuits with time-variant sources (AC or switched DC sources) - Calculates all node voltages and branch currents over time interval. Done to understand the sources and behavior of ESD, and determine how to control the sources.

37 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 5. PSPICE Modeling and Simulation Transient Analysis…contd. Voltage Sources Pulsed Voltage Source PSPICE Model

38 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 5. PSPICE Modeling and Simulation Sinusoidal Voltage Source Transient Analysis…contd. Voltage Sources…contd. PSPICE Model

39 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 5. PSPICE Modeling and Simulation ESD Events Simulation – Transient Analysis - Human Body Model (HBM) - Machine Model (MM) - Charge Device Model (CDM) HBM Simulated Circuit CDM Simulated Circuit MM Simulated Circuit Run PSPICE

40 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability 2. Process Benchmarking Systematic Approach in ESD Auditing 3. ESD Assessment 4. Actual Measurements 5. Modeling and Simulation 6. ESD Control Conceptualization 1. Failure Mode Identification Course Outline

41 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Key Considerations Elimination of the HF voltage/current source Current Suppression Current Diversion 6. ESD Control Conceptualization Run PSPICE

42 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Thank You!

43 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Back-up

44 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Discussion Basic PSPICE Simulation How to start the simulation? - Simulation should be based on the actual condition. - Prior ESD measurements should be made. Transient Noise Measurements RLC components identification. Power source consideration. L = 20 nH per inch of ground wire C for charge storage

45 Manufacturing and R&D : Leveling Up the Philippines Capability Discussion PSPICE Simulation Workshop Actual PSPICE Simulation - Understanding HF Noise from stepper motors, transformers, HV sources, etc. - Charge Decay Simulation (Spot Decay Test Using CPM) - Tools and series resistance


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