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Tunneling ­ At its most basic, a tunnel is a tube hollowed through soil or stone. Constructing a tunnel, however, is one of the most compl­ex challenges.

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Presentation on theme: "Tunneling ­ At its most basic, a tunnel is a tube hollowed through soil or stone. Constructing a tunnel, however, is one of the most compl­ex challenges."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tunneling روشهای ساخت تونل از نظر انواع و نحوه کار By Dr. A. ABBASI PhD

2 Tunneling ­ At its most basic, a tunnel is a tube hollowed through soil or stone. Constructing a tunnel, however, is one of the most compl­ex challenges in the field of civil engineering. Many tunnels are considered technological masterpieces and governments have honored tunnel engineers as heroes. That's not to say, of course, that some tunnel projects haven't encountered major setbacks. The Central Artery/Tunnel Project (the "Big Dig") in Boston, Massachusetts was plagued by massive cost overruns, allegations of corruption, and a partial ceiling collapse that resulted in a fatality. But these challenges haven't stopped engineers from dreaming up even bigger and bolder ideas, such as building a Transatlantic Tunnel to connect New York with London. In this article, we'll explore what makes tunnels such an attractive solution for railways, roadways, public utilities and telecommunications. We'll look at the defining characteristics of tunnels and examine how tunnels are built. We'll also look at the "Big Dig" in detail to understand the opportunities and challenges inherent to building a tunnel. Finally, we'll look at the future of tunnels.

3 Tunnel under construction
The Gottha­rd Base Tunnel, a railway tunnel under construction in Switzerland.

4 Fundamental tunnel Tunnel Basics A tunnel is a horizontal passageway located underground. While erosion and other forces of nature can form tunnels, in this article we'll talk about man made tunnels -- tunnels created by the process of excavation. There are many different ways to excavate a tunnel, including manual labor, explosives, rapid heating and cooling, tunneling machinery or a combination of these methods. Some structures may require excavation similar to tunnel excavation, but are not actually tunnels. Shafts, for example, are often hand-dug or dug with boring equipment. But unlike tunnels, shafts are vertical and shorter. Often, shafts are built either as part of a tunnel project to analyze the rock or soil, or in tunnel construction to provide headings, or locations, from which a tunnel can be excavated. The diagram below shows the relationship between these underground structures in a typical mountain tunnel. The opening of the tunnel is a portal. The "roof" of the tunnel, or the top half of the tube, is the crown. The bottom half is the invert. The basic geometry of the tunnel is a continuous arch. Because tunnels must withstand tremendous pressure from all sides, the arch is an ideal shape. In the case of a tunnel, the arch simply goes all the way around.

5 Tunnel in Mountain

6 The forces carried by Tunnel
Tunnel engineers, like bridge engineers, must be concerned with an area of physics known as statics. Statics describes how the following forces interact to produce equilibrium on structures such as tunnels and bridges: Tension, which expands, or pulls on, material Compression, which shortens, or squeezes material Shearing, which causes parts of a material to slide past one another in opposite directions Torsion, which twists a material The tunnel must oppose these forces with strong materials, such as masonry, steel, iron and concrete.

7 Force apply on tunnel

8 Loads on Tunnel In order to remain static, tunnels must be able to withstand the loads placed on them. Dead load refers to the weight of the structure itself, while live load refers to the weight of the vehicles and people that move through the tunnel. We'll look at the basic types of tunnels next.

9 Type of tunnel construction
Tunnel Construction: Soft Ground and Hard Rock Workers generally use two basic techniques to advance a tunnel. In the full-face method, they excavate the entire diameter of the tunnel at the same time. This is most suitable for tunnels passing through strong ground or for building smaller tunnels. The second technique, shown in the diagram below, is the top-heading-and-bench method. In this technique, workers dig a smaller tunnel known as a heading. Once the top heading has advanced some distance into the rock, workers begin excavating immediately below the floor of the top heading; this is a bench. One advantage of the top-heading-and-bench method is that engineers can use the heading tunnel to gauge the stability of the rock before moving forward with the project.

10 Top heading & Bench Method

11 Soft Ground Tunnel Notice that the diagram shows tunneling taking place from both sides. Tunnels through mountains or underwater are usually worked from the two opposite ends, or faces, of the passage. In long tunnels, vertical shafts may be dug at intervals to excavate from more than two points. Now let's look more specifically at how tunnels are excavated in each of the four primary environments: soft ground, hard rock, soft rock and underwater. Soft Ground (Earth) Workers dig soft-ground tunnels through clay, silt, sand, gravel or mud. In this type of tunnel, stand-up time -- how long the ground will safely stand by itself at the point of excavation -- is of paramount importance. Because stand-up time is generally short when tunneling through soft ground, cave-ins are a constant threat. To prevent this from happening, engineers use a special piece of equipment called a shield. A shield is an iron or steel cylinder literally pushed into the soft soil. It carves a perfectly round hole and supports the surrounding earth while workers remove debris and install a permanent lining made of cast iron or precast concrete. When the workers complete a section, jacks push the shield forward and they repeat the process. Marc Isambard Brunel, a French engineer, invented the first tunnel shield in 1825 to excavate the Thames Tunnel in London, England. Brunel's shield comprised 12 connected frames, protected on the top and sides by heavy plates called staves. He divided each frame into three workspaces, or cells, where diggers could work safely. A wall of short timbers, or breasting boards, separated each cell from the face of the tunnel. A digger would remove a breasting board, carve out three or four inches of clay and replace the board. When all of the diggers in all of the cells had completed this process on one section, powerful screw jacks pushed the shield forward.

12 Frame Made by Brunels

13 Types of tunnel makeing
In 1874, Peter M. Barlow and James Henry Greathead improved on Brunel's design by constructing a circular shield lined with cast-iron segments. They first used the newly-designed shield to excavate a second tunnel under the Thames for pedestrian traffic. Then, in 1874, the shield was used to help excavate the London Underground, the world's first subway. Greathead further refined the shield design by adding compressed air pressure inside the tunnel. When air pressure inside the tunnel exceeded water pressure outside, the water stayed out. Soon, engineers in New York, Boston, Budapest and Paris had adopted the Greathead shield to build their own subways. Hard Rock Tunneling through hard rock almost always involves blasting. Workers use a scaffold, called a jumbo, to place explosives quickly and safely. The jumbo moves to the face of the tunnel, and drills mounted to the jumbo make several holes in the rock. The depth of the holes can vary depending on the type of rock, but a typical hole is about 10 feet deep and only a few inches in diameter. Next, workers pack explosives into the holes, evacuate the tunnel and detonate the charges. After vacuuming out the noxious fumes created during the explosion, workers can enter and begin carrying out the debris, known as muck, using carts. Then they repeat the process, which advances the tunnel slowly through the rock. Fire-setting is an alternative to blasting. In this technique, the tunnel wall is heated with fire, and then cooled with water. The rapid expansion and contraction caused by the sudden temperature change causes large chunks of rock to break off. The Cloaca Maxima, one of Rome's oldest sewer tunnels, was built using this technique. The stand-up time for solid, very hard rock may measure in centuries. In this environment, extra support for the tunnel roof and walls may not be required. However, most tunnels pass through rock that contains breaks or pockets of fractured rock, so engineers must add additional support in the form of bolts, sprayed concrete or rings of steel beams. In most cases, they add a permanent concrete lining. We'll look at tunnel driving through soft rock and driving underwater next.

14 Reasons for tunneling Types of Tunnels
There are three broad categories of tunnels: mining, public works and transportation. Let's look briefly at each type. Mine tunnels are used during ore extraction, enabling laborers or equipment to access mineral and metal deposits deep inside the earth. These tunnels are made using similar techniques as other types of tunnels, but they cost less to build. Mine tunnels are not as safe as tunnels designed for permanent occupation, however.

15 Mine Tunnel A coal miner standing on the back of a car in a mine tunnel in the early 1900s. Notice that the sides of the tunnel are shored up with timber

16 Tunnel to carry water Public works tunnels carry water, sewage or gas lines across great distances. The earliest tunnels were used to transport water to, and sewage away from, heavily populated regions. Roman engineers used an extensive network of tunnels to help carry water from mountain springs to cities and villages. These tunnels were part of aqueduct systems, which also comprised underground chambers and sloping bridge-like structures supported by a series of arches. By A.D. 97, nine aqueducts carried approximately 85 million gallons of water a day from mountain springs to the city of Rome.

17 Aqueduct tunnel A Roman aqueduct that runs from the Pools of Solomon to Jerusalem

18 Transportation tunnel
Before there were trains and cars, there were transportation tunnels such as canals -- artificial waterways used for travel, shipping or irrigation. Just like railways and roadways today, canals usually ran above ground, but many required tunnels to pass efficiently through an obstacle, such as a mountain. Canal construction inspired some of the world's earliest tunnels. The Underground Canal, located in Lancashire County and Manchester, England, was constructed from the mid- to late-1700s and includes miles of tunnels to house the underground canals. One of America's first tunnels was the Paw Paw Tunnel, built in West Virginia between 1836 and 1850 as part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. Although the canal no longer runs through the Paw Paw, at 3,118 feet long it is still one of the longest canal tunnels in the United States.

19 Inside tunnel

20 Longer tunnel ­ By the 20th century, trains and cars had replaced canals as the primary form of transportation, leading to the construction of bigger, longer tunnels. The Holland Tunnel, completed in 1927, was one of the first roadway tunnels and is still one of the world's greatest engineering projects. Named for the engineer who oversaw construction, the tunnel ushers nearly 100,000 vehicles daily between New York City and New Jersey. Tunnel construction takes a lot of planning. We'll explore why in the next section.

21 Planning for tunnel construction
Tunnel Planning Almost every tunnel is a solution to a specific challenge or problem. In many cases, that challenge is an obstacle that a roadway or railway must bypass. They might be bodies of water, mountains or other transportation routes. Even cities, with little open space available for new construction, can be an obstacle that engineers must tunnel beneath to avoid.   Construction of the Seikan Tunnel involved a 24-year struggle to overcome challenges posed by soft rock under the sea. In the case of the Holland Tunnel, the challenge was an obsolete ferry system that strained to transport more than 20,000 vehicles a day across the Hudson River. For New York City officials, the solution was clear: Build an automobile tunnel under the river and let commuters drive themselves from New Jersey into the city. The tunnel made an immediate impact. On the opening day alone, 51,694 vehicles made the crossing, with an average trip time of just 8 minutes.

22 Tunnel in soft rock in Japan
Construction of the Seikan Tunnel involved a 24-year struggle to overcome challenges posed by soft rock under the sea. Photo courtesy Japan Railway Public Corporation

23 Type of ground effect on tunneling method
Sometimes, tunnels offer a safer solution than other structures. The Seikan Tunnel in Japan was built because ferries crossing the Tsugaru Strait often encountered dangerous waters and weather conditions. After a typhoon sank five ferryboats in 1954, the Japanese government considered a variety of solutions. They decided that any bridge safe enough to withstand the severe conditions would be too difficult to build. Finally, they proposed a railway tunnel running almost 800 feet below the sea surface. Ten years later, construction began, and in 1988, the Seikan Tunnel officially opened. How a tunnel is built depends heavily on the material through which it must pass. Tunneling through soft ground, for instance, requires very different techniques than tunneling through hard rock or soft rock, such as shale, chalk or sandstone. Tunneling underwater, the most challenging of all environments, demands a unique approach that would be impossible or impractical to implement above ground.

24 Successful tunnel That's why planning is so important to a successful tunnel project. Engineers conduct a thorough geologic analysis to determine the type of material they will be tunneling through and assess the relative risks of different locations. They consider many factors, but some of the most important include: Soil and rock types Weak beds and zones, including faults and shear zones Groundwater, including flow pattern and pressure Special hazards, such as heat, gas and fault lines Often, a single tunnel will pass through more than one type of material or encounter multiple hazards. Good planning allows engineers to plan for these variations right from the beginning, decreasing the likelihood of an unexpected delay in the middle of the project. Once engineers have analyzed the material that the tunnel will pass through and have developed an overall excavation plan, construction can begin. The tunnel engineers' term for building a tunnel is driving, and advancing the passageway can be a long, tedious process that requires blasting, boring and digging by hand.

25 Design as you monitor The NATM integrates the principles of the behaviour of rock masses under load and monitoring the performance of underground construction during construction. The NATM is not a set of specific excavation and support techniques and has often been referred to as a "design as you go" approach to tunnelling providing an optimized support based on observed ground conditions but more correctly it is a "design as you monitor" approach based on observed convergence and divergence in the lining as well as prevailing rock conditions

26 Shotcrete There are seven features on which NATM is based:
Mobilization of the strength of rock mass - The method relies on the inherent strength of the surrounding rock mass being conserved as the main component of tunnel support. Primary support is directed to enable the rock to support itself. Shotcrete protection - Loosening and excessive rock deformation must be minimised. This is achieved by applying a thin layer of shotcrete immediately after face advance. Measurements - Every deformation of the excavation must be measured. NATM requires installation of sophisticated measurement instrumentation. It is embedded in lining, ground, and boreholes. Flexible support - The primary lining is thin and reflects recent strata conditions. Active rather than passive support is used and the tunnel is strengthened not by a thicker concrete lining but by a flexible combination of rock bolts, wire mesh and steel ribs. Closing of invert - Quickly closing the invert and creating a load-bearing ring is important. It is crucial in soft ground tunnels where no section of the tunnel should be left open even temporarily. Contractual arrangements - Since the NATM is based on monitoring measurements, changes in support and construction method are possible. This is possible only if the contractual system enables those changes. Rock mass classification determines support measures - There are several main rock classes for tunnels and corresponding support systems for each. These serve as the guidelines for tunnel reinforcement.

27 NATM Based on the computation of the optimal cross section, just a thin shotcrete protection is necessary. It is applied immediately behind the Tunnel boring machine, to create a natural load-bearing ring and therefore to minimize the rock's deformation. Additionally, geotechnical instruments are installed to measure the later deformation of excavation. Therefore a monitoring of the stress distribution within the rock is possible. This monitoring makes the method very flexible, even at surprising changes of the geomechanical rock consistency during the tunneling work, e.g. by crevices or pit water. Such (usual) problems are not solved by thicker shotcrete, but the reinforcement is done by wired concrete which can be combined with steel ribs or lug bolts. The measured rock properties lead to the appropriate tools for tunnel strengthening. Therefore in the last decade NATM was also applied to soft ground excavations and to tunnels in porous sediments. The flexible NATM technique enables immediate adjustments in the construction details, but this requires a flexible contractual system, too. Philosophy and controversial names When tunneling engineers talk on NATM, they often mean different things because some of them define it as a special technique, but others as a sort of philosophy. Recently the scene has been complicated by new terms and even alternative names, when discussing certain aspects of NATM. This is partly caused by an increased use of the method in the USA, particularly in soft ground conditions (see External links). Besides the official name New Austrian Tunneling Method other designations are used in the last years, e.g. Sequential Excavation Method (SEM), or Sprayed Concrete Lining (SCL). In Japan sometimes other names were used, e.g. Centre Dividing Wall NATM, or Cross Diaphragm Method (both abbreviated as CDM), and even Upper Half Vertical Subdivision method (UHVS). Evidently, the scientists and the tunneling industry cannot find a unified name for this widely used method. As defined by the Austrian Society of Engineers and Architects, the NATM constitutes a method where the surrounding rock or soil formations of a tunnel are integrated into an overall ring-like support structure. Thus the supporting formations will themselves be part of this supporting structure.

28 NATM But many engineers already refer to as NATM, when shotcrete is proposed for initial ground support of an open-face tunnel. Especially with reference to soft ground, the term NATM can be misleading. As noted by Emit Brown, NATM can refer to both a design philosophy and a construction method. [edit] Key features According to E.Brown (Weblink 2), the key features of the design philosophy refer to: The strength of the ground around a tunnel is deliberately mobilized to the maximum extent possible. Mobilization of ground strength is achieved by allowing controlled deformation of the ground. Initial primary support is installed having load-deformation characteristics appropriate to the ground conditions, and installation is timed with respect to ground deformations. Instrumentation is installed to monitor deformations in the initial support system, as well as to form the basis of varying the initial support design and the sequence of excavation. When NATM is seen as a construction method, the key features are: The tunnel is sequentially excavated and supported, and the excavation sequences can be varied. The initial ground support is provided by shotcrete in combination with fibre or welded-wire fabric reinforcement, steel arches (usually lattice girders), and sometimes ground reinforcement (e.g. soil nails, spiling). The permanent support is usually (but not always) a cast-in-place concrete lining. Some experts note that many of these construction methods were used in the US and elsewhere in soft-ground applications, before NATM was described in the literature. In an article of 2002 Romero states the major difference between the viewpoints of design and of construction: The deformation of the soil (rem.: at soft-ground tunnels) is not easily ‘controlled’. Therefore it can be concluded that the excavation and support planned for sequentially excavated, shotcrete-lined tunnels .. utilizes NATM construction methods but not necessarily NATM design methods. These details are less essential at tunnels in solid or fair rock.

29 Tunnel in world Tunnel From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search This article is about underground passages. For uses of the word tunnel, see Tunnel (disambiguation). Underground tunnel for heatpipes between Rigshospitalet and Amagerværket in Denmark. A tunnel is an underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for egress, commonly at each end. A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers. Other uses include routing power or telecommunication cables, some are to permit wildlife such as European badgers to cross highways. Secret tunnels have given entrance to or escape from an area, such as the Cu Chi Tunnels or the smuggling tunnels in the Gaza Strip which connect it to Egypt. Some tunnels are not for transport at all but rather, are fortifications, for example Mittelwerk and Cheyenne Mountain. In the United Kingdom, a pedestrian tunnel or other underpass beneath a road is called a subway. In the United States that term now means an underground rapid transit system.

30 Tunnel for heatpipes Underground tunnel for heatpipes between Rigshospitalet and Amagerværket in Denmark.

31 Size of Tunnel The central part of a rapid transit network is usually built in tunnels. Rail station platforms may be connected by pedestrian tunnels or by foot bridges. A tunnel is relatively long and narrow; in general the length is more (usually much more) than twice the diameter. Some hold a tunnel to be at least kilometres (0.10 mi) long and call shorter passageways by such terms as an "underpass" or a "chute". For example, the underpass beneath Yahata Station in Kitakyushu, Japan is km long (0.081 mi) and so might not be considered a tunnel.

32 Ground conditions Geotechnical investigation
Main article: Geotechnical investigation A tunnel project must start with a comprehensive investigation of ground conditions by collecting samples from boreholes and by other geophysical techniques. An informed choice can then be made of machinery and methods for excavation and ground support, which will reduce the risk of encountering unforeseen ground conditions. In planning the route the horizontal and vertical alignments will make use of the best ground and water conditions. In some cases conventional desk and site studies yield insufficient information to assess such factors as the blocky nature of rocks, the exact location of fault zones, or the stand-up times of softer ground. This may be a particular concern in large diameter tunnels. To give more information a pilot tunnel, or drift, may be driven ahead of the main drive. This smaller diameter tunnel will be easier to support should unexpected conditions be met, and will be incorporated in the final tunnel. Alternatively, horizontal boreholes may sometimes be drilled ahead of the advancing tunnel face.

33 Cut and Cover method Cut-and-cover constructions of the Paris Métro in France

34 Methods of tunnel construction
Tunnels are dug in types of materials varying from soft clay to hard rock. The method of tunnel construction depends on such factors as the ground conditions, the ground water conditions, the length and diameter of the tunnel drive, the depth of the tunnel, the logistics of supporting the tunnel excavation, the final use and shape of the tunnel and appropriate risk management manage. There are three basic types of tunnel construction in common use: Cut and cover tunnels, constructed in a shallow trench and then covered over. Bored tunnels, constructed in situ, without removing the ground above. They are usually of circular or horseshoe cross-section. Immersed tube tunnels, sunk into a body of water and sit on, or are buried just under, its bed.

35 Bottom-up & Top Down method
Cut-and-cover is a simple method of construction for shallow tunnels where a trench is excavated and roofed over with an overhead support system strong enough to carry the load of what is to be built above the tunnel. Two basic forms of cut-and-cover tunnelling are available: Bottom-up method: A trench is excavated, with ground support as necessary, and the tunnel is constructed in it. The tunnel may be of in situ concrete, precast concrete, precast arches,or corrugated steel arches; in early days brickwork was used. The trench is then carefully back-filled and the surface is reinstated. Top-down method: Here side support walls and capping beams are constructed from ground level by such methods as slurry walling, or contiguous bored piling. Then a shallow excavation allows making the tunnel roof of precast beams or in situ concrete. The surface is then reinstated except for access openings. This allows early reinstatement of roadways, services and other surface features. Excavation then takes place under the permanent tunnel roof, and the base slab is constructed. Shallow tunnels are often of the cut-and-cover type (if under water, of the immersed-tube type), while deep tunnels are excavated, often using a tunnelling shield. For intermediate levels, both methods are possible

36 Cut and cover method Large cut-and-cover boxes are often used for underground metro stations, such as Canary Wharf tube station in London. This construction form generally has two levels, which allows economical arrangements for ticket hall, station platforms, passenger access and emergency egress, ventilation and smoke control, staff rooms, and equipment rooms. The interior of Canary Wharf station has been likened to an underground cathedral, owing to the sheer size of the excavation. This contrasts with most traditional stations on London Underground, where bored tunnels were used for stations and passenger access. [edit] Clay-kicking Clay-kicking is a specialised method developed in the United Kingdom, of manually digging tunnels in strong clay-based soil structures. Unlike previous manual methods of using mattocks which relied on the soil structure to be hard, clay-kicking was relatively silent and hence did not harm soft clay based structures. The clay-kicker lies on a plank at a 45degree angle away from the working face, and inserts a tool with a cup-like rounded end with his feet. Turning the tool with his hands, he extracts a section of soil, which is then placed on the waste extract. Regularly used in Victorian civil engineering, the methods found favour in the renewal of the United Kingdom's then ancient sewerage systems, by not having to remove all property or infrastructure to create an effective small tunnel system. During the First World War, the system was successfully deployed by the Royal Engineer tunnelling companies to deploy large military mines beneath enemy German Empire lines. The method was virtually silent not susceptible to listening methods of detection.[1]

37 BORING machine ] Boring machines Main article: Tunnel boring machine
A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States Tunnel boring machines (TBMs) and associated back-up systems are used to highly automate the entire tunneling process, reducing tunneling costs. Tunnel boring in certain predominantly urban applications, is viewed as quick and cost effective alternative to laying surface rails and roads. Expensive compulsory purchase of buildings and land with potentially lengthy planning inquiries is eliminated. There are a variety of TBMs that can operate in a variety of conditions, from hard rock to soft water-bearing ground. Some types of TBMs, bentonite slurry and earth-pressure balance machines, have pressurised compartments at the front end, allowing them to be used in difficult conditions below the water table. This pressurizes the ground ahead of the TBM cutter head to balance the water pressure. The operators work in normal air pressure behind the pressurised compartment, but may occasionally have to enter that compartment to renew or repair the cutters. This requires special precautions, such as local ground treatment or halting the TBM at a position free from water. Despite these difficulties, TBMs are now preferred to the older method of tunneling in compressed air, with an air lock/decompression chamber some way back from the TBM, which required operators to work in high pressure and go through decompression procedures at the end of their shifts, much like divers

38 TBM A tunnel boring machine that was used at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, United States

39 Diameter of TBM In February 2010, Aker Wirth delivered a TBM to Switzerland, for the expansion of Linth Limmern Power Plant in Switzerland. The borehole has a diameter of 8.03 metres (26.3 ft).[2] The TBM used for digging the 57-kilometre (35 mi) Gotthard Base Tunnel, in Switzerland, has a diameter of about 9 metres (30 ft). A larger TBM was built to bore the Green Heart Tunnel (Dutch: Tunnel Groene Hart) as part of the HSL-Zuid in the Netherlands, with a diameter of 14.87 metres (48.8 ft).[3] This in turn was superseded by the Madrid M30 ringroad, Spain, and the Chong Ming tunnels in Shanghai, China. All of these machines were built at least partly by Herrenknecht. Shafts A Shaft is sometimes necessary for a tunnel project. They are usually circular and go straight down until they reach the level at which the tunnel is going to be built. A shaft normally has concrete walls and is built just like it is going to be permanent. Once they are built the Tunnel Boring Machines are lowered to the bottom and excavation can start. Shafts are the main entrance in and out of the tunnel until the project is completed. Sometimes if a tunnel is going to be long there will be multiple shafts at various locations so that entrance into the tunnel is closer to the unexcavated area.[4]

40 Ground freezing Other Key Factors
Stand-up time is the amount of time a tunnel will support itself without any added structures. Knowing this time allows the engineers to determine how much can be excavated before support is needed. The longer the stand-up time is the faster the excavating will go. Generally certain configurations of rock and clay will have the greatest stand-up time, and sand and fine soils will have a much lower stand-up time.[5] Groundwater control is very important in tunnel construction. If there is water leaking into the tunnel stand-up time will be greatly decreased. If there is water leaking into the shaft it will become unstable and will not be safe to work in. To stop this from happening there are a few common methods. One of the most effective is ground freezing. To do this pipes are inserted into the ground surrounding the shaft and are cooled until they freeze. This freezes the ground around each pipe until the whole shaft is surrounded frozen soil, keeping water out. The most common method is to install pipes into the ground and to simply pump the water out. This works for tunnels and shafts.[6] Tunnel shape is very important in determining stand-up time. The force from gravity is straight down on a tunnel, so if the tunnel is wider than it is high it will have a harder time supporting itself decreasing its stand-up time. If a tunnel is higher than it is wide the stand up time will increase making the project easier. The hardest shape to support itself is a square or rectangular tunnel. The forces have a harder time being redirected around the tunnel making it extremely hard to support itself. This of course all depends what the material of the ground is.[4]

41 NATM shotcrete [edit] Sprayed Concrete Techniques
The New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) was developed in the 1960s, and is the best known of a number of engineering solutions that use calculated and empirical real-time measurements to provide optimised safe support to the tunnel lining. The main idea of this method is to use the geological stress of the surrounding rock mass to stabilize the tunnel itself, by allowing a measured relaxation and stress reassignment into the surrounding rock to prevent full loads becoming imposed on the introduced support measures. Based on geotechnical measurements, an optimal cross section is computed. The excavation is immediately protected by a layer of sprayed concrete, commonly referred to as shotcrete, after excavation. Other support measures could include steel arches, rockbolts and mesh. Technological developments in sprayed concrete technology have resulted in steel and polypropylene fibres being added to the concrete mix to improve lining strength. This creates a natural load-bearing ring, which minimizes the rock's deformation

42 Tunnel in sydney Illowra Battery utility tunnel, Port Kembla. One of many bunkers south of Sydney.

43 Other types of tunnel construction
By special monitoring the NATM method is very flexible, even at surprising changes of the geomechanical rock consistency during the tunneling work. The measured rock properties lead to appropriate tools for tunnel strengthening. In the last decades also soft ground excavations up to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) became usual. Pipe jacking Pipe Jacking, also known as pipejacking or pipe-jacking, is a method of tunnel construction where hydraulic jacks are used to push specially made pipes through the ground behind a tunnel boring machine or shield. This technique is commonly used to create tunnels under existing structures, such as roads or railways. Tunnels constructed by pipe jacking are normally small diameter tunnels with a maximum size of around 2.4m. Box jacking Box jacking is similar to pipe jacking, but instead of jacking tubes, a box shaped tunnel is used. Jacked boxes can be a much larger span than a pipe jack with the span of some box jacks in excess of 20m. A cutting head is normally used at the front of the box being jacked and excavation is normally by excavator from within the box. Underwater tunnels There are also several approaches to underwater tunnels, the two most common being bored tunnels or immersed tubes. Submerged floating tunnels are another approach that has not been constructed.

44 Cost of tunnel vs bridge making
Other tunneling methods include: Drilling and blasting Slurry-shield machine Wall-cover construction method. Costs and cost overruns of tunnels Tunnels are costly and generally more costly than bridges. Large cost overruns are common in tunnel construction.] Choice of tunnels vs. bridges For water crossings, a tunnel is generally more costly to construct than a bridge. Navigational considerations may limit the use of high bridges or drawbridge spans intersecting with shipping channels, necessitating a tunnel. Bridges usually require a larger footprint on each shore than tunnels. There are actually more codes to follow with bridges than with tunnels. In areas with expensive real estate, such as Manhattan and urban Hong Kong, this is a strong factor in tunnels' favor. Boston's Big Dig project replaced elevated roadways with a tunnel system to increase traffic capacity, hide traffic, reclaim land, redecorate, and reunite the city with the waterfront. train stalling in the Armi tunnel in Italy in 1944, killing 426 passengers

45 Tunnel instead of Bridge in War
The 1934 Queensway Road Tunnel under the River Mersey at Liverpool, was chosen over a massively high bridge for defence reasons. It was feared aircraft could destroy a bridge in times of war. Maintenance costs of a massive bridge to allow the world's largest ships navigate under was considered higher than a tunnel. Similar conclusions were met for the 1971 Kingsway Tunnel under the River Mersey. Examples of water-crossing tunnels built instead of bridges include the Holland Tunnel and Lincoln Tunnel between New Jersey and Manhattan in New York City, and the Elizabeth River tunnels between Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia, the 1934 River Mersey road Queensway Tunnel and the Western Scheldt Tunnel, Zeeland, Netherlands.

46 Mixture of bridge and tunnel
Other reasons for choosing a tunnel instead of a bridge include avoiding difficulties with tides, weather and shipping during construction (as in the 51.5-kilometre or 32.0 mi Channel Tunnel), aesthetic reasons (preserving the above-ground view, landscape, and scenery), and also for weight capacity reasons (it may be more feasible to build a tunnel than a sufficiently strong bridge). Some water crossings are a mixture of bridges and tunnels, such as the Denmark to Sweden link and the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel in the eastern United States. There are particular hazards with tunnels, especially from vehicle fires when combustion gases can asphyxiate users, as happened at the Gotthard Road Tunnel in Switzerland in One of the worst railway disasters ever, the Balvano train disaster, was caused by a a train stalling in the Armi tunnel in Italy in 1944, killing 426 passengers.

47 Double Deck Tunnel Variant tunnel types Double-deck tunnel
Some tunnels are double-deck, for example the two major segments of the San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge (completed in 1936) are linked by a double-deck tunnel, once the largest diameter tunnel in the world. At construction this was a combination bidirectional rail and truck pathway on the lower deck with automobiles above, now converted to one-way road vehicle traffic on each deck. A recent double-decker tunnel with both decks for motor vehicles is the Fuxing Road Tunnel in Shanghai, China. Cars travel on the two-lane upper deck and heavier vehicles on the single-lane lower. Multipurpose tunnel are tunnels that have more than one purpose. The SMART Tunnel in Malaysia is the first multipurpose tunnel in the world, as it is used both to control traffic and flood in Kuala Lumpur

48 Inside view of tunnel in Hungary
The 19th century Dark Gate in Esztergom, Hungary

49 Protection rules of Tunnel
Overbridges can sometimes be built by covering a road or river or railway with brick or still arches, and then levelling the surface with earth. In railway parlance, a surface-level track which has been built or covered over is normally called a covered way. Snow sheds are a kind of artificial tunnel built to protect a railway from avalanches of snow. Similarly the Stanwell Park, New South Wales steel tunnel, on the South Coast railway line, protects the line from rockfalls. Common utility ducts are man-made tunnels created to carry two or more utility lines underground. Through co-location of different utilities in one tunnel, organizations are able to reduce the costs of building and maintaining utilities. Hazards It has been suggested that Tunnel fire be merged into this article or section. (Discuss) Owing to the enclosed space of a tunnel, fires can have very serious effects on users. The main dangers are gas and smoke production, with low concentrations of carbon monoxide being highly toxic. Fires killed 11 people in the Gotthard tunnel fire of 2001 for example, all of the victims succumbing to smoke and gas inhalation. Over 400 passengers died in the Balvano train disaster in Italy in 1944, when the locomotive halted in a long tunnel. Carbon monoxide poisoning was the main cause of the horrifying death rate.

50 Tunnel protection shield
Overbridges can sometimes be built by covering a road or river or railway with brick or still arches, and then levelling the surface with earth. In railway parlance, a surface-level track which has been built or covered over is normally called a covered way. Snow sheds are a kind of artificial tunnel built to protect a railway from avalanches of snow. Similarly the Stanwell Park, New South Wales steel tunnel, on the South Coast railway line, protects the line from rockfalls. Common utility ducts are man-made tunnels created to carry two or more utility lines underground. Through co-location of different utilities in one tunnel, organizations are able to reduce the costs of building and maintaining utilities.

51 Tunnel History Examples of tunnels In history
A short section remains of the 1836 Edge Hill to Lime Street tunnel in Liverpool. This is the oldest used rail tunnel in the world. A tilting train passes through the tunnel. The World's oldest underwater tunnel is rumored to be the Terelek kaya tüneli under Kızıl River, a little south of the towns of Boyabat and Duragan in Turkey. Estimated to have been built more than 2000 years ago (possibly 5000), it is assumed to have had a defence purpose. The qanat or kareez of Persia is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. The oldest and largest known qanat is in the Iranian city of Gonabad, which after 2700 years, still provides drinking and agricultural water to nearly 40,000 people. Its main well depth is more than 360 m (1,180 ft), and its length is 45 km (28 mi).

52 Snow tunnels Natural tunnels
Lava tubes are partially empty, cave-like conduits underground, formed during volcanic eruptions by flowing and cooling lava. Natural Tunnel State Park (Virginia, USA) features an 850-foot (259 m) natural tunnel, really a limestone cave, that has been used as a railroad tunnel since 1890. Punarjani Guha Kerala, India. Hindus believe that crawling through the tunnel (which they believe was created by a Hindu god) from one end to the other will wash away all of one’s sins and thus attain rebirth, although only men are permitted to crawl through the cave. Small "snow tunnels" are created by voles, chipmunks and other rodents for protection and access to food sources. Temporary Way During construction of a tunnel it is often convenient to install a temporary railway particularly to remove spoil. This temporary railway is often narrow gauge so that it can be double track, which facilitates the operation of empty and loaded trains at the same time. The temporary way is replaced by the permanent way at completion, thus explaining the term Perway.

53 Enlargement The vehicles using a tunnel can outgrow it, requiring replacement or enlargement. The original single line Gib Tunnel near Mittagong was replaced with a double line tunnel, with the original tunnel used for growing mushrooms.[citation needed] The Rhyndaston Tunnel was enlarged using a borrowed Tunnel Boring Machine so as to be able to take ISO containers. The 1836 Lime Street two track 1 mile tunnel from Edge Hill to Lime Street in Liverpool was totally removed, apart from a short 50 metre section at Edge Hill. Four tracks were required. The tunnel was converted into a very deep 4 track open cutting. However, short larger 4 track tunnels were left in some parts of the run. Train services were not interrupted as the work progressed. Photos of the work in progress: [5] [6] There are other occurrences of tunnels being replaced by open cuts, for example, the Auburn Tunnel

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