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Extension.usu.edu Food Myths Fact or Fiction? Karin Allen, PhD USU Extension Food Quality & Entrepreneurship FCS Videocast Series September 24, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Extension.usu.edu Food Myths Fact or Fiction? Karin Allen, PhD USU Extension Food Quality & Entrepreneurship FCS Videocast Series September 24, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 extension.usu.edu Food Myths Fact or Fiction? Karin Allen, PhD USU Extension Food Quality & Entrepreneurship FCS Videocast Series September 24, 2013

2 extension.usu.edu Fact or Fiction?Fact or Fiction? Alcohol evaporates out of foods during cooking.

3 extension.usu.edu Fiction! Alcohol evaporates out of foods during cooking.

4 extension.usu.edu Ethanol or Ethyl Alcohol Hydrophobic and hydrophillic regions Stabilizes flavors and aromas Boiling point 170°F

5 Extract Flavor McCormickWatkinsMassey Vanilla Pure 41% Imit. 26% Pure 35% Almond Pure 32% Imit. 32% Pure 40% Imit. 45% Pure 90% OrangePure 79%Pure 89%Pure 90% PeppermintPure 89%Pure 91%Pure 83% Liqueurs (orange, berry, mint, etc.): typically 15-30% Wine (red, white, blush): 10-15% Liquor (rum, whiskey, vodka): 35-50%

6 Hydrogen Bonding in EthanolHydrogen Bonding in Ethanol

7 Hydrogen Bonding between Ethanol and Water

8 USDA Nutrient Retention FactorsUSDA Nutrient Retention Factors Cooking MethodTime% Alcohol Remaining Flambéen/a75% Baked/simmered15 min40% Baked/simmered30 min35% Baked/simmered1 hr25% Baked/simmered1.5 hr20% Baked/simmered2 hr10% Baked/simmered2.5 hr5% Source: USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6 (Dec. 2007)

9 extension.usu.edu Fact or Fiction?Fact or Fiction? Freshly ground wheat shouldn’t be used for bread.

10 extension.usu.edu Fact! Freshly ground wheat shouldn’t be used for bread.

11 Gluten Glutenins Gliadins

12 Gluten FormationGluten Formation

13 Gluten Requires Disulfide BondingGluten Requires Disulfide Bonding

14 extension.usu.edu Fact! Freshly ground wheat shouldn’t be used for bread.

15

16 Changes During MaturingChanges During Maturing Glutathione content decreases naturally after milling Chemical processing speeds this up

17 Why is Glutathione Bad?Why is Glutathione Bad?

18 Glutathione

19 extension.usu.edu Recommended Aging Time is 10 DaysRecommended Aging Time is 10 Days Research shows glutathione decreases by up to 43% after 10 days for some wheat types Bread volume increases roughly 10% using 10-day old flour Results between 10 and 40-day old flour are very similar Source: Chen X. and Schofield J. D. (1996). “Changes in the Glutathione Content and Breadmaking Performance of White Wheat Flour During Short-Term Storage”. Cereal Chemistry 73(1):1-4.

20 extension.usu.edu Fact or Fiction?Fact or Fiction? Freshly-squeezed is more nutritious than juice made from frozen concentrate.

21 extension.usu.edu Fiction! Freshly-squeezed is more nutritious than juice made from frozen concentrate.

22 Which apple would you choose?Which apple would you choose?

23 extension.usu.edu Blemished Foods in Food ProcessingBlemished Foods in Food Processing The Food and Agriculture Organization reports post-harvest losses account for over 20% of total food waste world wide Fruits and vegetables used in processing must still meet USDA quality standards Only 5% of apples for processing can have worm holes

24 extension.usu.edu But aren’t nutrients lost in processing? Frozen juice concentrates are no longer heated to evaporate water (they are still pasteurized for safety reasons) Water can be removed by freezing or membrane filtration

25 Freeze ConcentrationFreeze Concentration

26 Membrane FiltrationMembrane Filtration

27 extension.usu.edu But aren’t nutrients lost in processing? Frozen juice concentrates are no longer heated to evaporate water (they are still pasteurized for safety reasons) Water can be removed by freezing or membrane filtration Both techniques preserve sensitive nutrients such as Vitamin C USDA Table of Nutrient Retention Factors, Release 6 (Dec. 2007)

28 extension.usu.edu Fact or Fiction?Fact or Fiction? Red kidney beans should be boiled first, not added dry to a slow-cooker.

29 extension.usu.edu Fact! Red kidney beans should be boiled first, not added dry to a slow-cooker.

30 Phytohaemagglutinin

31 Levels of Protein StructureLevels of Protein Structure

32 PHA Activity in kidney beansPHA Activity in kidney beans Variety Soak time Cook conditions Activity units before Activity units after Red kidney18 hrs Red kidney18 hrs100°C, 10 min Red kidney18 hrs100°C, 20 min White kidney18 hrs White kidney18 hrs100°C, 10 min White kidney18 hrs100°C, 20 min Red kidney18 hrs70°C, 20 min Red kidney18 hrs80°C, 20 min Adapted from Bender A.E. (1983). “Haemagglutinins (Lectins) in Beans”. Food Chemistry 11:

33 extension.usu.edu FDA RecommendationsFDA Recommendations Soak in water for at least 5 hours. Pour away the water. Boil briskly in fresh water, with occasional stirring, for at least 10 minutes. Undercooked beans may be more toxic than raw beans! Source: FDA Bad Bug Book 2 nd Edition (2012)

34 extension.usu.edu Fact or Fiction?Fact or Fiction? Pre-packaged roasts are safe even if cooked rare.

35 extension.usu.edu It Depends…It Depends… Pre-packaged roasts are safe even if cooked rare.

36 extension.usu.edu USDA Safe Cook TempsUSDA Safe Cook Temps Product Minimum Internal Temperature Beef, Pork, Veal & Lamb Steaks, chops, roasts145°F Ground160°F Poultry Breasts, legs, thighs, wings165°F Ground165°F

37 extension.usu.edu Why is there a lower temperature for red meats? Intact muscles are sterile (bacteria cannot penetrate into the muscle) Meats become contaminated during harvest and processing Any cut surface can contain bacteria Ground meats, cube steaks What about roasts?

38 Depends!!! Was it Injected or Tenderized?

39 So which pre-packaged meats are?So which pre-packaged meats are?

40 extension.usu.edu How can I tell?How can I tell? As of June 2013, USDA requires all mechanically tenderized or injected meats to be labeled Must give cooking instructions, including a validated safe minimum internal temperature Consumers should follow similar recommendations when injecting roasts at home

41 extension.usu.edu Questions or Comments? Thank You!


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