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Figure 10–1 A 64-cell memory array organized in three different ways. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Figure 10–1 A 64-cell memory array organized in three different ways. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Figure 10–1 A 64-cell memory array organized in three different ways. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

2 Figure 10–2 Examples of memory address in a 2-dimensional array. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

3 Figure 10–3 Example of memory address in a 3-dimensional array. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

4 Figure 10–4 Block diagram of a 2-dimensional memory and a 3-dimensional memory showing address bus, address decoder(s), bidirectional data bus, and read/write inputs. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

5 Figure 10–5 Illustration of the write operation. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

6 Figure 10–6 Illustration of the read operation. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

7 Figure 10–7 The RAM family. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

8 Figure 10–8 A typical SRAM latch memory cell. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

9 Figure 10–9 Basic SRAM array. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

10 Figure 10–10 Logic diagram for an asynchronous 32k x 8 SRAM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

11 Figure 10–11 Basic organization of an asynchronous 32k x 8 SRAM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

12 Figure 10–12 Basic read and write cycle timing for the SRAM in Figure 10–11. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

13 Figure 10–13 A basic block diagram of a synchronous SRAM with burst feature. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

14 Figure 10–14 Address burst logic. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

15 Figure 10–15 Block diagram showing L1 and L2 cache memories in a computer system. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

16 Figure 10–16 A MOS DRAM cell. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

17 Figure 10–17 Basic operation of a DRAM cell. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

18 Figure 10–18 Simplified block diagram of a 1M x 1 DRAM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

19 Figure 10–19 Basic timing for address multiplexing. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

20 Figure 10–20 Normal read and write cycle timing. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

21 Figure 10–21 Fast page mode timing for a read operation. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

22 Figure 10–22 The ROM family. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

23 Figure 10–23 ROM cells. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

24 Figure 10–24 A representation of a 16 x 8-bit ROM array. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

25 Figure 10–25 Representation of a ROM programmed as a binary-to-Gray code converter. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

26 Figure 10–26 A 256 x 4 ROM logic symbol. The A designator means that the 8-bit address code selects addresses 0 through 255. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

27 Figure 10–27 A 1024-bit ROM with a 256 x 4 organization based on a 32 x 32 array. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

28 Figure 10–28 ROM access time (t a ) from address change to data output with chip enable already active. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

29 Figure 10–29 MOS PROM array with fusible links. (All drains are commonly connected to V DD.) Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

30 Figure 10–30 Ultraviolet erasable PROM package. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

31 Figure 10–31 The logic symbol for a 2048 x 8 UV EPROM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

32 Figure 10–32 Timing diagram for a 2048 x 8 UV EPROM programming cycle, with critical setup times (t s ) and hold times (t h ) indicated. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

33 Figure 10–33 The storage cell in a flash memory. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

34 Figure 10–34 Simplified illustration of storing a 0 or a 1 in a flash cell during the programming operation. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

35 Figure 10–35 The read operation of a flash cell in an array. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

36 Figure 10–36 Simplified illustration of removing charge from a cell during erase. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

37 Figure 10–37 Basic flash memory array. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

38 Figure 10–38 Expansion of two 65,536 x 4 ROMs into a 65,536 x 8 ROM to illustrate word-length expansion. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

39 Figure 10–39 A 64k x 4 ROM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

40 Figure 10–40 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

41 Figure 10–41 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

42 Figure 10–42 Illustration of word-length expansion with two 2 m x n RAMs forming a 2 m x 2n RAM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

43 Figure 10–43 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

44 Figure 10–44 Illustration of word-capacity expansion. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

45 Figure 10–45 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

46 Figure 10–46 30-pin and 72-pin SIMMs. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

47 Figure 10–47 A SIMM/DIMM is inserted into a socket on a system board. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

48 Figure 10–48 Comparison of conventional and FIFO register operation. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

49 Figure 10–49 Block diagram of a typical FIFO serial memory. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

50 Figure 10–50 Examples of the FIFO register in data-rate buffering applications. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

51 Figure 10–51 Register stack. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

52 Figure 10–52 Simplified illustration of pushing data onto the stack. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

53 Figure 10–53 Simplified illustration of pulling data from the stack. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

54 Figure 10–54 Representation of a 64 kB memory with the 16-bit addresses expressed in hexadecimal. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

55 Figure 10–55 Illustration of the PUSH operation for a RAM stack. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

56 Figure 10–56 Illustration of the POP operation for the RAM stack. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

57 Figure 10–57 A CCD (charge-coupled device) channel. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

58 Figure 10–58 A hard disk drive. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

59 Figure 10–59 Simplified read/write head operation. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

60 Figure 10–60 Hard disk organization and formatting. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

61 Figure 10–61 The 3.5 inch floppy disk (diskette). Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

62 Figure 10–62 QIC tape. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

63 Figure 10–63 Basic principle of a magneto-optical disk. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

64 Figure 10–64 Basic operation of reading data from a CD-ROM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

65 Figure 10–65 Block diagram for a complete contents check of a ROM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

66 Figure 10–66 Flowchart for a complete contents check of a ROM. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

67 Figure 10–67 Simplified illustration of a programmed ROM with the checksum stored at a designated address. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

68 Figure 10–68 Flowchart for a basic checksum test. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

69 Figure 10–69 The RAM checkerboard test pattern. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

70 Figure 10–70 Flowchart for basic RAM checkerboard test. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

71 Figure 10–71 Block diagram of the complete security system. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

72 Figure 10–72 Block diagram of the memory logic. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

73 Figure 10–73 Memory cell logic. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

74 Figure 10–74 The memory address decoder. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

75 Figure 10–75 Memory array and address decoder. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

76 Figure 10–76 Illustration of entering a security code (4739) into the memory. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

77 Figure 10–77 The complete memory logic. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

78 Figure 10–78 The security code logic (from Chapter 11). Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

79 Figure 10–79 The complete security system. Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

80 Figure 10–80 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

81 Figure 10–81 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

82 Figure 10–82 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

83 Figure 10–83 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

84 Figure 10–84 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

85 Figure 10–85 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

86 Figure 10–86 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

87 Figure 10–87 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.

88 Figure 10–88 Thomas L. Floyd Digital Fundamentals, 9e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey All rights reserved.


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