Presentation on theme: "Fire Hose and Appliances"— Presentation transcript:
1Fire Hose and Appliances Chapter 10Fire Hose and Appliances
2Introduction Hose used to move water to fire Fire hose is a flexible conduitToday, many materials are used to make hoseCouplings, adapters, and appliances used to connect hoseMost departments use National Standard Hose Threads
3Construction of Fire Hose Two components: hose and couplingsFire hose can be wrapped, braided, or wovenSpecific types of hoses:AttackSupply hoseSoft suction and hard suctionOccupant useForestry
5Care and Maintenance of Fire Hose Begins with careful folding and placement of the dry hoseAlways folded at different placesHose bed should be designed to facilitate circulation of air flowSeveral steps can be taken to reduce damage to hose
6Types of Hose CouplingCouplings allow hose and appliances to be joinedThreaded and nonthreaded couplingsMade of brass, aluminum, or an alloy called pyroliteLugs or handles are used for tightening or breaking connection
7Care and Maintenance of Couplings Keep cleanStore properlyDo not drag couplingsPerform a visual inspection each time hose is reloaded
8Hose Tools and Appliances Tools include:Rope hose toolsWrenchesRollersClampsOther items: valves, wyes, portable hydrants, strainers, pipes, caps, etc.
11Coupling and Uncoupling Hose Connecting hose couplings can be accomplished in several ways:One-person foot-tilt methodOne-person over-the-hip methodTwo-person over-the-hip methodUncoupling hose with spannersOne-person knee-press uncoupling method
12Hose Rolls Type of hose roll dictated by department policy Firefighters should practice all types of hose rolls
13Straight/Storage Easiest to work with Often used when picking up after a fireStart with hose flat on groundFrom male end, to protect threads, roll hose straight to opposite endOnce roll is finished, it is ready to be moved to storage
14Single Donut For access to either or both couplings Lay hose flatFold hose on top of itself with male coupling three feet short of female couplingStart at fold and roll toward couplings; a second firefighter can assistLeave small space at center of roll to provide handholdAlternative method by starting off-center about six feet to protect male coupling
15Job Performance Requirement 10-6 Straight or Storage Hose RollA Start with the hose flat on the ground. From the male end, to protect the threads, roll it straight to the opposite end.B Once the roll is finished, it is ready to be moved to storage.
16Twin or Double Donut For special applications Laid flat with both couplings at one end and each half lying parallelAt center, loop is folded over top of both halvesRoll started toward couplings at same timeAt end, roll may be tied together for carryingTwin donut can be secured by using the hose itself
17Job Performance Requirement 10-9 Twin-Donut Hose RollA First the hose is laid flat with both couplings at one end and each half lying parallel to the other.B At the center, the loop is folded over the top of both halves.
18Job Performance Requirement 10-9 (cont’d.) Twin-Donut Hose RollC The roll is started toward the couplings at the same time.D At the end, the roll may be tied together for carrying.10.18
19Job Performance Requirement 10-9 (cont’d.) Twin-Donut Hose RollE The twin donut can be secured by using the hose itself. This is called a self-locking roll. To accomplish this, extend the amount of hose that is used for the starting fold and loop. Allow this excessive hose to “flop” as the twin donuts are rolled. When finished, use the extra hose at the center to form a bight around the two end couplings. (Photo courtesy Loveland Fire and Rescue)10.19
20Hose CarriesType of hose carry is dictated by user preference and on-scene conditionsFirefighters should practice to be proficient in all types of hose carries
21Drain and Carry Combines the two steps of draining and carrying Done with one section of hoseStarts at one end of hose; with coupling held waist height, feeds hose over shoulder and back to waistFold is created and hose is laid on itself back to frontFirefighter continues to walk forward folding and refolding hose at waist until finishedHose can be carried to new location
22Job Performance Requirement 10-10 Drain and CarryA The firefighter starts at one end of the hose and with the coupling held waist height feeds the hose over the shoulder and back down to the waist.B A fold is created and the hose is laid on itself back to the front.
23Job Performance Requirement 10-10 (cont’d.) Drain and CarryC The firefighter continues to walk forward folding and refolding the hose at the waist until finished. The hose can then be carried to the new location.10.23
24Shoulder Loop CarryCarry is similar to rolling an electrical cord around one's arm but with bigger loopsPlace nozzle or end of hose over shoulder resting against backWalk forward three feet, pick up hose, and form bight to bring hose back up and over shoulder, creating a loopContinue as each section is picked up and carried forward
25Job Performance Requirement 10-11 Shoulder Loop CarryB Walk forward about 3 feet (1 m), pick up the hose, and form a bight to bring the hose back up and over the shoulder, creating a loop.C Continue as each section is picked up and carried forward.A Place the nozzle or end of hose over the shoulder resting against the back.
26Job Performance Requirement 10-11 (cont’d.) Shoulder Loop CarryD If you need to move in the opposite direction, the loops are collected and raised with your hands and then rotated to the opposite direction.E Return the hose to the opposite shoulder moving forward in the new direction.
27Single-Section Street Drag Can move one or two hoselinesPut end of hose over your shoulder with coupling in front at waist height and walk away dragging linePlace a line over each shoulder and pull two linesIf additional sections are needed, additional firefighters can do the same
28Job Performance Requirement 10-12 Single-Section Street DragA Put the end of a section of hose over your shoulder with the coupling in front at waist height and walk away dragging the line.B Place a line over each shoulder and pull two lines.
29Job Performance Requirement 10-12 (cont’d.) Single-Section Street DragC If additional sections are needed, additional firefighters can do the same with the following sections until the desired amount of hose is stretched.
30Hose LoadsDependent on type of firefighting operations a company will employA well-trained company should be able to perform any required fire scene tasksDutchman: short fold of hose or reverse fold that allows coupling placement on load
31Figure A dutchman is a short fold of hose or a reverse fold that is used when loading hose and a coupling comes at a point where a fold should take place or when two couplings end up on top of each other. The dutchman moves the coupling to another point in the load.
32Accordion Load Can be used for preconnected hose lines Used for providing additional supply lineIdeal for making up shoulder loads
33Flat Load Used for: Involves laying the hose flat Supply linesSome attack linesInvolves laying the hose flatIntended use dictates whether female or male end remains exposed when line is loaded
34Figure A straight finish load simply involves taking the final length or two of a load and laying it flat across the top of the load. A rope with adapters, a spanner wrench, and a hydrant wrench attached allows the layout person quick access to all the necessary tools and enough hose to make the hydrant connection.
35Horseshoe Load Normally used for supply line Relatively simple to load Usually deploys wellUseful for operations that require entire hoseload to be deployed at once
36Finish Loads and Preconnected Loads Utilizes the three methods of loading previously discussedStraight finish load used with a straight hose layAttack line can be attached to end of a hose loadBackstretchFlying stretchPreconnected lines can be made up using any number of loads or combinations
37Figure A reverse horseshoe load for laying out is made on top of the hose load but in the reverse direction (front to back), and at the center point of the “U” of the horseshoe the rope with adapters and wrenches is attached. The first portion of the hose may need a twist in it to get it to change direction.
38(A)(B)Figure Preconnected combination loads include horseshoe, accordion, accordion layers or alternating horseshoe and accordion layers. (A) Horseshoe, accordion, accordion layers. (B) Alternating horseshoe and accordion layers.
39Flat Load, Minuteman Load, and Triple-Layer Load Preconnected loads must allow rapid removal of hose from slot or bedFlat load, as a preconnect, is based on flat load described earlierMinuteman is a preconnected load using narrower section of the hose bedLoads combined with each other or new loadsHose load should serve needs of the department
40Stored Hose Load/Packs Apparatuses typically carry stored hose rolls and special application hose packsHose rolls are extra sections of rolled hoseCan be stored as a straight roll, donut roll, or double donutHose packs are numerous in design and makeup
41Wildland Firefighting Hose Loads Often requires firefighters to stretch hoseline a great distance from engineHose is rolled and bundled togetherPlacing two bundles together allows each firefighter to carry 200 feet
42Advancing Hoselines – Charged/Uncharged Engine company's purpose is to advance hoselines to seat of fire and to supply waterTasks accomplished in most efficient mannerNozzle person advances first shoulder load with nozzleOfficer takes second positionEngine person takes third position in a three-person line
43Job Performance Requirement 10-18 Advancing a Horseshoe LoadA Place the nozzle on the hose and select the desired amount of hose to deploy.B Pull the hose and place it on your shoulder.C Step away to pull the hose out of the bed.
44Job Performance Requirement 10-20 Advancing the Flat Load from a Preconnect BedA Start the flat load at the discharge with the hose laid. At a point from one-third to one-half the length of the line, an ear or row of ears should be added to assist in pulling the line.B To advance the line, grab the nozzle and place it over the shoulder with the other hand reaching around and pulling the ear.
45Job Performance Requirement 10-20 (cont’d.) Advancing the Flat Load from a Preconnect BedC Walk away, pulling the line behind.
46Job Performance Requirement 10-22 Advancing the Minuteman LoadA Lift up the nozzle and layers above it while pulling them out and placing them midway on the shoulder.B Step away to remove the remainder of the top layers.
47Job Performance Requirement 0-22 (cont’d.) Advancing the Minuteman LoadC Turn around and pull the ear to remove the remaining hose.D When the bottom sections are fully stretched out, allow the shoulder load to flake out toward the fire.
48Job Performance Requirement 10-24 Advancing the Triple-Layer LoadA Grab the layer with the nozzle and place it on the shoulder.B Pull the layers out of the slot, or another firefighter can grab the next layer.
49Job Performance Requirement 10-24 (cont’d.) Advancing the Triple-Layer LoadC Stretch the hose to the fire.
50Into Structures Advancing a hoseline into a structure requires: Careful placement of pumper and hoselineProper selection of correct size and length hoselineSkillful execution by hose crewCrew selects hoseline and properly removes it from engineEnsure there is adequate hose available at entry pointCheck door for heat before entering
51Up and Down StairsIf fire does not involve stairs, advance an uncharged line to fire floorIt is necessary to run hoseline up between handrailsRope or strap is wrapped around the railing and secured back on itselfIf stairwell or landing is involved with fire, crew must advance a charged line
52Figure 10-26 A crew advancing an uncharged hoseline up stairs.
53Using a Standpipe System Involves two different hoseline evolutionsEngine driver connecting to fire department connection on structureHose crew connecting to standpipe outlet and advancing hoseline to attack firePumper first establishes a water supplyHose load and type of coupling determine need for any adaptersPick connection that gets system into service quickest
54Figure After connecting the hose at the outlet and the discharge outlet of the pump, the line is charged to the proper pressure. The driver then returns to the outlet and opens the valve.
55Working Hose Off Ladders Safest manner is to advance uncharged hoseline up ladder and into building or onto fire escapeOther method advances a charged hoseline up ladder and into building or operated from ladderAdvancing a charged hoseline over a ladder requires multiple firefightersOperating a hoseline from ground ladder requires ladder to be securely tied in and heeled
56Figure Firefighters passing a charged hoseline up a ladder from one firefighter to the next until it reaches the opening.
57Establishing a Water Supply Connection Several different methods exist depending on:Type of heater sourceStyle of hydrantHose lays usedWhether a pumper will be used at the water sourceFirefighters connect directly to fire hydrant and assist engine driver in making connections
58From HydrantsUsing unsupported hydrant requires hoseline to be connected without engine at hydrantLayout person picks proper hydrant outletFlush hydrant before connecting hoseHydrant valve is opened when water is called forEngine connected directly to hydrant or to switch valve already in service to supply attack lines
59Figure The layout person pulls the layout section and enough hose to reach and wrap the hydrant.
60From Static Water Supplies Requires use of an engine and its hard sleeves to draft waterMust be positioned close enoughConnecting hard sleeve to dry hydrant is same procedure as connecting to regular hydrantVacuum must be created
61Extending Hoselines There will be occasions when line comes up short Often encountered by wildland firefightersAll firefighters should be familiar with techniques used to extend hoselines:Break-apart nozzleHose clampWildland hose advancing and extension
62Replacing Sections of Burst Hose Bursting of a section of hose requires immediate attentionHoseline must be shut down by pump operatorIf not possible, use other methodsReconnect or add a section; pump operator will recharge line
63Hose Lay Procedures Bring water to fire location SOPs should cover preferred hose lays and water supply operations
64Forward Lay Engine stops at water source Drop off supply lines Advances to location of fireFigure The forward or straight hose lay.
65Reverse Lay Opposite of forward lay Less preferred method Supply line dropped off at fire locationEngine laying hose toward water sourceLess preferred methodUsed in areas with few responding units and poor or static water sources
67Split LayUsed when fire and water source are in two different directionsLay split between two enginesFirst engine laying its line from a point or intersection to fire locationSecond engine laying its line from point to water source
68Deploying Master Stream Devices Master streams or heavy appliances:Non-handheld water applicatorsCapable of flowing 350 gallons of water per minuteFour basic types of master stream devices:Wagon pipeDeluge setMonitor pipeLadder pipe
69Figure 10-45 Proper operations of portable deluge sets.
70Service Testing of Fire Hose Tested prior to being placed in useTested after being repairedTesting begins with visual inspectionTest hose under pressureRecord results of testingHard sleeves tested by being connected to a suction source
71Lessons LearnedFire hose, adapters, and appliances allow firefighters to move water from source to pumperWithout these tools, firefighters would be limited in ability to move waterFirefighters must understand the proper use and care of toolsHow to connect, advance, and operate these toolsThese are the basics of firefightingBest method for learning is practical application