Presentation on theme: "Prepared by: Ian Horsford Sr. Fisheries Officer"— Presentation transcript:
1The Status of the Queen Conch (Strombus gigas) Fishery of Antigua and Barbuda Prepared by:Ian HorsfordSr. Fisheries OfficerFisheries Division, Antigua and BarbudaforWECAFC / CFMC / OSPESCA / CRFMQueen Conch Working Group MeetingPanama City, Panama23-25 October 2012
2Description of Conch Fishery In 2010, there were 11 full time conch-fishing vessels plus 8 part time vessels.Vessels range from small pirogues to large FRP launches, equipped with GPS and hydraulic hauler.Typical investment (vessel, gear, equipment, etc.) range from EC$60,000 (US$22,222) for a 22-foot FRP pirogue to EC$210,000 (US$77,777) for a 40-foot FRP launch.Photo: I. HorsfordLocally, conch is considered a normal goods (as oppose to a luxury goods), retailing at the same ex-vessel price as reef fish EC$9 / lb. (US$7.41 / kg).
3Description of Conch Fishery Commercially conch is harvested using SCUBA and involves some 72 individuals (including 40 SCUBA divers).SCUBA is the gear of choice due in part to the mean depth of the Antigua and Barbuda Shelf (about 30 metres).The Antigua and Barbuda Shelf is 3,400 km2 (one of the largest in the Eastern Caribbean).On average, full time divers would use about two 80 cubic-feet tanks per day.Fishers who target conch in Antigua reside mainly in the southern villages of Urlings and Old Road and their home port is Urlings Fisheries Complex; vessels may operate from different ports depending on the dive area.In Barbuda, there is only one full time commercial conch vessel operating; the Caribbean spiny lobster is the principal species of commercial interest for divers.In 2010, 102 metric tons of “dirty” conch meat (digestive gland removed) was landed with an ex-vessel value of EC$2.13 million (US$0.79 million); the live weight equivalent (including shell) was 764 metric tons.
4Policy & LegislationThe Fisheries Act, No.14 of 1983 and the Fisheries Regulations, No.10 of 1990, are currently the primary legislative basis for fisheries management and development.Current legislation prohibit:harvest of conch with shell < 180 mm or no flared-lip shell; orconch whose meat weight is < 225 g without digestive gland.There are provisions for closed season, prohibited gears (e.g., hookah compressor diving rig) and protected areas; the Cades Bay Marine Reserve was established in 1999 (approx. size: km2) primarily to protect critical conch habitat (e.g., seagrass beds).The Act also makes provisions for the State to take action against citizens of Antigua and Barbuda that are involved in IUU fishing outside Antigua and Barbuda waters.
5Policy & LegislationIn 2003, the Fisheries Division sought assistance from FAO, with respect to bringing the Fisheries Act (1983) and the Fisheries Regulations (1990), in line with current international fisheries law.The substantive legislation, the Fisheries Act, No. 22 of 2006, has being passed by Parliament and will be enacted along with the draft amended Fisheries Regulations (2012) later this year.In addition to the current legislative provisions, the Fisheries Act (2006) and the accompanying regulations, will:Move the conch fishery from an “open access” to a “limited entry” management regime through the use of special permits;Require mandatory training of fishers (SCUBA diving safety, conservation measures, CITES, basic business practices, etc.);Establish a closed season from 1st July to 31st August of every year; andEstablish a minimum shell lip thickness of 5 mm for conch to be harvested.
6Development Activities Development activities are geared towards:“Professionalising” the sector – hence the need for mandatory training of fishers.Regaining market access for conch products to the EU (Antigua and Barbuda’s main export market).The classification of conch as a bivalve mollusc under EU directive and the need for biotoxins monitoring programme have made the process an arduous task.
7Fisheries Management & Conservation Activities Over the past decades there has been a gradual shift in fisheries governance (including management) from one that is “top-down” and centralised to one that is “participatory” and devolved.Involvement of stakeholders has been at the following levels:consultation, where the views of individuals / organisations who could be affected by management decision are solicited;formal representation of stakeholders on Fisheries Advisory Committee or fisheries focus group;fisheries research / stock assessment (recognising the importance of fisheries traditional knowledge and transparency with regards to fisheries management decisions).
8Fisheries Management & Conservation Activities This shift in governance approach has led to: increase understanding of management decisions; improve compliance by conch fishers; and increase effectiveness of fisheries governance.For the past decade, the mean rate of compliance regarding size restriction was 88%, suggesting most conch had the opportunity to reproduce at least once before capture.According to the regulations, meat weight is the weight of the conch after removal of digestive gland (locally referred to as “dirty” meat weight).
9Fisheries Management & Conservation Activities The Fisheries Act 1983 allows for compounding of offence whereby a maximum fine of EC$5,000 (US$1,852) can be imposed or imprisonment of 12 months; in new regulations the maximum fine is EC$50,000 (US$18,520).In terms of enforcement, only 3.1% of individuals fined since 1992 where related to violations of conch conservation measures.This is consistent with the high rate of compliance obtained from conch biological programme
10Consumption & TradeImports and exports of conch meat for Antigua and Barbuda have been negligible; the EU requirements governing the production of seafood have halted exports of conch meat since 1993.Hence mean domestic consumption based on production is about 0.89 kg “dirty” meat per capita.This has to be viewed in the context of the demands of the tourism sector; total visitor arrivals (air and sea) is in the range of 1 million and resident population is only 90,000 individuals.In 2008, many spiny lobster divers focused on conch due to decrease demand for lobster by the downturn in the tourism sector.
11Data Collection, Research & Stock Assessment In order to assess the status of the resource and monitor landings, a data collection programme was initiated in 1995.This includes monitoring the catch per unit effort, biological data (weight, sex, maturity of samples, level of compliance, etc.), as well as economic data (costs & earnings).As outlined in Antigua and Barbuda Plan of Action to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate IUU fishing, a database of violations is also kept: to improve overall monitoring of illegal fishing; to readily identify repeat offenders; and to guide monitoring, control and surveillance strategies.Other measures such as market-related measures are outlined in the NPOA-IUU.
12Data Collection, Research & Stock Assessment Conch production for Antigua and Barbuda has been increasing from 315 MT in 2000 to 764 MT in 2010 (live wt.); hence the recent adoption of limited entry regulations.The catch per unit effort trend has been marginally positive, ranging from 12.3 to 20.0 kg “dirty” meat / 80 cubic-feet SCUBA tank.There is also no negative trends with respect to annual mean “dirty” meat weight or depth dived.
13Data Collection, Research & Stock Assessment The most recent research was a comprehensive conch morphometric study which was funded by Fisheries Division and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) with support from conch fishers.The findings were presented in a paper entitled:“The Morphology of the Queen conch (Strombus gigas) from the Antigua and Barbuda Shelf – Implications for Fisheries Management”,at the 64th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute Conference, held in Puerto Morelos, Mexico.The objectives of the conch morphometric study were to: 1) ascertain if there were spatial variability regarding morphology; 2) analyse length-weight relationships for various maturation stages; 3) develop statistically valid conversion factors for different levels of processed conch meat; 4) assess current management regimes (e.g., minimum size / weight); and 5) validate results of fisheries-dependent data programme.
14Morphometric Study: Main Findings For both juvenile and adult conch, shell length differed significantly among the coastal groupings, p <Shell lip thickness, an indicator of the age, was also significantly different among the coasts (p < 0.001), where conch from the N and W coast were significantly older than those from the E or S coast of Antigua (p < 0.001).S coast is the traditional fishing area and N, W and E are new fishing areas; MPAs have been established on the S, NW and NE coast.Mean lip thickness of pooled adult queen conch (i.e., Sub adult, Adult & Old adult) from the coast of Antigua. Error bar is 95% CI.
15Main FindingsThe mean lip thickness for conch collected from commercial fishing trips was 25.0 mm, indicating that divers were targeting an old population consistent with fisheries-dependent programme.Conversion factors differed significantly among maturation stages (particularly for adult and old adult) p < 0.001; hence the use of a single conversion factor to transform processed meat time-series to nominal weight is problematic.These morphological differences require a multifaceted management approach (limited entry, closed season, protected areas, etc.) to ensure the long-term sustainability of the fishery.Lip thickness = 63.0mmPhoto: I. HorsfordPhoto: M. Ishida
16Final ConsiderationsThe main “lessons learned” from research activities include:Fisheries research and management must be “cost-effective” to be sustainable in the long run; in small scale or artisanal fisheries, management cost can easily equal or exceed the value of the landings.One option to improve cost-effectiveness is by having fishers provide support (manpower, logistics, etc.) for research.The participation of fishers in research allows for greater “buy-in” with respect to management decisions emanating from research.Traditional knowledge of fishers should be thoroughly researched and documented to ascertain their relevance to management and research. For example, conch divers rotate or “rest” diving areas as an informal management strategy; this has implications when areas are declared permanent reserves.