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2.02B Methods and Uses of Animation

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1 2.02B Methods and Uses of Animation
2.02 Develop Computer Animations

2 Frame-by-Frame Animation
Rapidly displaying images, or frames, in a sequence to create the optical illusion of movement. Digital animation is based on the frame by frame animation process. Example of a ball bouncing. The link opens this URL:

3 Frame-by-Frame Animation (Continued)
The quality of frame-based animation depends on the frame rate. Frame Rate = Frames per Second  FPS = Smoother Action Teacher Note: Supplemental Activity Just for fun: See if students can guess how many frames per second television uses. TV Quality Video = 30 frames per second Typical Computer Animation = 24 frames per second Minimum = Anything under 12 frames per second will look “jerky” The more frames per second, the smoother the motion appears.

4 Methods of Animating

5 Morphing Animation The term morphing comes from the word metamorphosis, which is the transformation of one thing into another. The beginning image is inserted. The ending image is inserted. The computer performs the tweening to generate a sequence of images, each of which is slightly different from the one it follows to gradually morph the two objects. For example, a photograph of one person might gradually morph into a picture of another person.

6 Example of Morphing The top two images show the beginning and ending images. The lower images show the older man morphing into the young boy. In business, morphing can be used for transitions between web pages or images. Beginning Image Ending Image Finished Animation

7 Path Based Animation Also called vector animation.
An object follows a path which is a line, or vector, inserted by the animator. A motion path can include curves, loops, and angles. The computer calculates the correct position of the object as it moves along the path and generates the frames to create the animation. Teacher Note:

8 Path Based Animation (Continued)
Vector graphics or animated gifs can be used to create animations with very small file sizes. The small file sizes make this type of animation very popular on the Web. Many of the banner ads and embedded animations viewed on web sites use this technology because it loads so quickly and is easy to use. Teacher Note: In the banner, the text is following a motion path. The butterfly is an animated gif following a motion path. The motion path was created using PowerPoint’s custom animation feature (Under the Slide Show Menu). When the Slideshow is running, click on the butterfly to see it follow the motion path. To show the motion path in the slide view, right-click on the butterfly and click Custom Animation. (In Office 2010, to see the motion path, click on the butterfly and then click on the Animations tab.)

9 Programming or Scripting-Based Animation
Requires knowledge of a programming or scripting language. Example: Rollover or Mouseover When the mouse is moved over an image, it changes to a different image so quickly that it looks as if the change has occurred in a single instant. Created by using scripting languages such as Javascript.

10 Programming or Scripting-Based Animation (Continued)
Rollovers are extremely important for navigation buttons on user interface designs. Examples Web pages ■ CBT programs Kiosks ■ CD-ROM Training Games ■ CDs and DVDs.

11 Stop Motion Animation Process of manipulating real-world objects and photographing them one frame at a time. Very popular method with the film industry until computer generated imagery became possible. Now used mainly in clay animation. Example Teacher Note: Supplemental Activity: An early example of stop motion animation used in film can be found here: It can be viewed in two different formats. It it entitled The Enchanted Drawing.

12 Uses of Computer Animations

13 Uses of Computer Animation
Entertainment Films, computer games and virtual reality. 3D graphics are popular for these types of animations because they are more realistic. Virtual Reality is the use of technology to immerse a user into an artificial environment. Interaction occurs when the user moves around and manipulates simulated 3D objects in the environment. Requires high-quality graphics using 3D technology. Requires high frame rates for smooth motion, and high image resolution for realistic detail.

14 Uses of Computer Animation
Advertising Animation can be used to catch the viewer’s eye. Popular for banner ads on websites. Selling – showcasing products or services. Teaching – illustrating concepts or processes. Training – simulating events or demonstrating techniques in presentations. Examples:

15 Use Animation Appropriately
Before using an animation, be sure to answer the following questions: Is it appropriate for the target audience? Does it help deliver the message? Is it overused? Does it load quickly?

16 3D Graphics and Animation Software

17 3D Graphics and Animation Software
The leading graphics programs designed specifically for creating and editing 3D images are: Xara 3D 3ds Max 4 Maya Blender Flash Cinema 4D These programs allow users to: Create live-action animation Bounce an object Zoom in or out of a scene Fade text or pictures in or out to create other animated effects.

18 Design Frame-by-Frame Computer Animations
NOTE: Before continuing with this presentation, open the 3.01C Frame-by-Frame Animation Using PowerPoint Presentation to view a completed animation.

19 Use PowerPoint to Create Frame by Frame Animation
Insert a clipart image that is a vector file Hint: In Microsoft software, search for .wmf files. Ungroup the image. Edit the image then regroup it. Copy the image and paste it onto the next slide. Change the image or its location. Repeat for several slides. Teacher Note: Open the 3.01C Frame-by-Frame Animation Using PowerPoint Presentation to show a finished animation. Step-by-step instructions are listed below if you are unfamiliar with ungrouping a clipart image. Right click on the clipart, choose Grouping, Ungroup Click yes when prompted to convert the image to a Microsoft Office drawing object. Right click on the clipart again, choose Grouping, Ungroup The clipart is now ungrouped into its separate parts and all the parts are selected. In order to change only one piece of the image, you must click OFF the clipart and then click on the piece you want to change. Double-clicking on the piece to change will bring up the Format Autoshape dialog box where the colors can be changed. When you are finished editing the image: right click on it, choose Grouping, Regroup.

20 PowerPoint Animation (continued)
Rehearse the timings. Click on Slide Show, Rehearse Timings Set the amount of time for each slide to display. Set the Show to run continuously. Click on Slide Show, Set Up Show Check Loop Continuously Until Esc Save and preview the animation.

21 Create Animated Gifs Many image editing programs can create animated gifs. Examples: Adobe PhotoShop and Gimp Steps: Insert an image. Copy it to a different layer and change the image or its position. Repeat the layers until you are satisfied. Save the file as an animated gif. Teacher Note: Many tutorials are available online explaining how to create an animated gif using GIMP and PhotoShop. For your convenience, a couple of links to tutorials have been included below. You DO NOT have to use these tutorials. How to Create and Animated Gif in GIMP: How to create an animated gif in PhotoShop:

22 Review Methods and Uses of Computer Animations
Methods of computer animations Frame-by-Frame Animation Morphing Animation – Uses shape tweening. Path Animation - Uses motion tweening. Programming and Scripting-Based Animation Stop Motion Animation Uses of computer animations Advertising Entertainment Selling Teaching Training

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