Presentation on theme: "The Revolt of the Engineers Summary by David E. Goldberg University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801."— Presentation transcript:
The Revolt of the Engineers Summary by David E. Goldberg University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, IL 61801
Text Layton, Jr., E. T. (1986). The revolt of the engineers: Social responsibility and the American engineering profession. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Topics Engineer and business. Evolution of a profession. Ideology of engineering. Revolt of the civil engineers. Scientific management and reform. Morris Cooke Return to Normalcy Depression and New Deal
Engineer: Scientist & Businessman Veblen: Assumed conflict would force engineers to become social revolutionaries! 1816: 30 engineers 1850: 2000 engineers 1880-1920: 7000 to 136,000 engineers
Key Conflict Bureaucratic loyalty vs. Independence of professionalism. Professional values: –Autonomy –Colleagual control of professional work –Social responsibility Professionalism vs. egalitarianism.
Business Influence on Engineering Educationally: Board of Trustees, curriculum. Hierarchically: in Companies; price of advancement. Rise results in loss of ID as engineers. Censorship of engineering publication. Companies supporting travel to engineering society meetings.
Evolution of a Profession Professionally oriented: Single society represents all. Industry oriented: Societies that serve needs of specific industries. Scientifically oriented: Require individuals with creative ability to do original work.
Origins Follow Scientific Society 1829: Franklin Institute. 1839: First effort to form engineering society on top of Franklin Institute. 1848: Boston Society of Civil Engineers 1852: American Society of Civil Engineers. Two early majors: AIME and ASCE (biz vs. professionalism)
ASCE Elitist tendencies alienate –Local engineers –Engineers in industry –Young engineers Maintain autonomy rather than expand influence
AIME American Institute of Mining Engineers Those practically engaged in mining, metallurgy, or metallurgical engineering. One-man band: Rossiter W. Raymond. Engineer as a kind of businessman. Resisted code of ethics.
ASME 3 Founders –Sweet: artisan –Holly: businessman –Thurston: educator Inclusive membership, but elite governance of the society.
AIEE Formed to compete with British society. First president was president of Western Union. But scientific advance in electricity brought rapid professionalism of AIEE.
Proliferation of Societies Unhappiness with business v. professionalism calibration. Business toward proliferation, professionalism toward unification.
Ideology Engineers not philosophers. No coherent metaphysical system. Many assumptions about the world taken as self-evident. System –Materialistic: physics and material surroundings. –Idealistic: Ethical imperatives and moralism. Biz v. Science again!!
Herbert Spencer Social darwinism. Laissez faire. Highly influential in late 1800s. Spencer an engineer. Could not reconcile with idealism.
Engineers: Priests of Social Good ASCEs Morrison: We are the priests of material development, of the work which enables other men to enjoy the fruits of the great sources of power in Nature, and of the power of mind over matter. We are priests of the new epoch, without superstitions.
Self Image Important social role. Logical thinkers. Concerned over status of engineers. Seek scientific solutions to all things. Similarity with reformers –Middle ground between labor and capital. –Nostalgia for individualism of the frontier. –Not the same faith in democracy.
Struggle for Status AIEE took lead. Code of Ethics: 1906-1912. Public policy forays: largely unsuccessful. Local vs. Center: Locals were fairly strong. 1912 rule limits local power. New grade of member: allowed businessmen in. Shift from professionalism to biz: mid teens to 20s.
Revolt of the Civils Overproduction of Civil degrees. Complancy of ASCE. No interest in unification. Newell Reclamation Service head, Orwellian designs. Committee on Engineering Cooperation. American Association of Engineers: Grew to 20,000 in just under 2 years.
Engineering Council Answer to AAE, 1917. Served government. Didnt unify engineers, but neither did AAE.
Frederick Taylor Scientific management. Early engineers approach to management. Time and motion study of industrial engineering. All task, no relationship. Threatened both labor and management. Efficiency methods used in education!! Morris Cooke: efficiency and democracy.
Herbert Hoover Engineering method personified. Progressive but not radical. Efficiency will eliminate waste. Engineering write large. But had constrained view of what engineers could do. President of Federated American Engineering Societies 1920.
Planning vs. the Individual Scientific management and technocracy led to planning at the center. Other engineers emphasized the individual and enterprise. Depression look inward: –ECPD 1932: licensure as way of controlling supply. –Unions