Presentation on theme: "The Revolt of the Engineers"— Presentation transcript:
1The Revolt of the Engineers Summary by David E. GoldbergUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana, IL 61801
2TextLayton, Jr., E. T. (1986). The revolt of the engineers: Social responsibility and the American engineering profession. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
3Topics Engineer and business. Evolution of a profession. Ideology of engineering.Revolt of the civil engineers.Scientific management and reform.Morris CookeReturn to NormalcyDepression and New Deal
4Engineer: Scientist & Businessman Veblen: Assumed conflict would force engineers to become social revolutionaries!1816: 30 engineers1850: 2000 engineers: 7000 to 136,000 engineers
5Key Conflict Bureaucratic loyalty vs. Independence of professionalism. Professional values:AutonomyColleagual control of professional workSocial responsibilityProfessionalism vs. egalitarianism.
6Business Influence on Engineering Educationally: Board of Trustees, curriculum.Hierarchically: in Companies; price of advancement.Rise results in loss of ID as engineers.Censorship of engineering publication.Companies supporting travel to engineering society meetings.
7Evolution of a Profession Professionally oriented: Single society represents all.Industry oriented: Societies that serve needs of specific industries.Scientifically oriented: Require individuals with creative ability to do original work.
8Origins Follow Scientific Society 1829: Franklin Institute.1839: First effort to form engineering society on top of Franklin Institute.1848: Boston Society of Civil Engineers1852: American Society of Civil Engineers.Two early majors: AIME and ASCE (biz vs. professionalism)
9ASCE Elitist tendencies alienate Local engineersEngineers in industryYoung engineersMaintain autonomy rather than expand influence
10AIME American Institute of Mining Engineers Those “practically engaged in mining, metallurgy, or metallurgical engineering.”One-man band: Rossiter W. Raymond.Engineer as a kind of businessman.Resisted code of ethics.
11ASME3 FoundersSweet: artisanHolly: businessmanThurston: educatorInclusive membership, but elite governance of the society.
12AIEE Formed to compete with British society. First president was president of Western Union.But scientific advance in electricity brought rapid professionalism of AIEE.
13Proliferation of Societies Unhappiness with business v. professionalism calibration.Business toward proliferation, professionalism toward unification.
14Ideology Engineers not philosophers. No coherent metaphysical system. Many assumptions about the world taken as self-evident.SystemMaterialistic: physics and material surroundings.Idealistic: Ethical imperatives and moralism.Biz v. Science again!!
15Herbert Spencer Social darwinism. Laissez faire. Highly influential in late 1800s.Spencer an engineer.Could not reconcile with idealism.
16Engineers: Priests of Social Good ASCE’s Morrison: “We are the priests of material development, of the work which enables other men to enjoy the fruits of the great sources of power in Nature, and of the power of mind over matter. We are priests of the new epoch, without superstitions.”
17Self Image Important social role. Logical thinkers. Concerned over status of engineers.Seek scientific solutions to all things.Similarity with reformersMiddle ground between labor and capital.Nostalgia for individualism of the frontier.Not the same faith in democracy.
18Struggle for Status AIEE took lead. Code of Ethics: 1906-1912. Public policy forays: largely unsuccessful.Local vs. Center: Locals were fairly strong rule limits local power.New grade of member: allowed businessmen in.Shift from professionalism to biz: mid teens to 20s.
19Revolt of the Civils Overproduction of Civil degrees. Complancy of ASCE.No interest in unification.Newell Reclamation Service head, Orwellian designs. Committee on Engineering Cooperation.American Association of Engineers: Grew to 20,000 in just under 2 years.
20Engineering Council Answer to AAE, 1917. Served government. Didn’t unify engineers, but neither did AAE.
21Frederick Taylor Scientific management. Early engineers approach to management.Time and motion study of industrial engineering.All task, no relationship.Threatened both labor and management.Efficiency methods used in education!!Morris Cooke: efficiency and democracy.
22Herbert Hoover Engineering method personified. Progressive but not radical.Efficiency will eliminate waste. Engineering write large.But had constrained view of what engineers could do.President of Federated American Engineering Societies 1920.
23Planning vs. the Individual Scientific management and technocracy led to planning at the center.Other engineers emphasized the individual and enterprise.Depression look inward:ECPD 1932: licensure as way of controlling supply.Unions