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Taste seminar June 3 2009 1 FLAVOUR, FOOD SCIENCE, FACTORY AND CONSUMER Andy Taylor Flavometrix Limited and University of Nottingham, UK.

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Presentation on theme: "Taste seminar June 3 2009 1 FLAVOUR, FOOD SCIENCE, FACTORY AND CONSUMER Andy Taylor Flavometrix Limited and University of Nottingham, UK."— Presentation transcript:

1 Taste seminar June 3 2009 1 FLAVOUR, FOOD SCIENCE, FACTORY AND CONSUMER Andy Taylor Flavometrix Limited and University of Nottingham, UK

2 Taste seminar June 3 2009 2 Rationale for presentation Much research is going on in Universities and institutes across the world What is industry-ready? What is in the pipeline and of interest? How can you access this information and develop it?

3 SALT REDUCTION Technologies to reduce salt while maintaining taste Taste Seminar June 3 2009 3

4 Things to remember Main role of salt in food is to enhance flavour –Test effects of reduction in actual product Salt in some products has a functional role (yeast in bread, texture in snack foods) –Reducing salt past certain levels causes manufacturing problems Uncertainty about risks of salt? –Lack of large scale trials Taste Seminar June 3 20094

5 Approach 1: Replace sodium Science: The salt receptor is tuned to sodium The next best alternative is Lithium (poisonous) Potassium has some effect on the salt receptors but also imparts bitterness Taste Seminar June 3 20095

6 Approach 1: Sodium replacers Is there a magic ingredient that could fire the salt receptor directly or indirectly? Senomyx USA Screen thousands of potential agents Taste Seminar June 3 20096

7 Approach 2a: Maximise salt taste Science: Will delivering a localised salt concentration give better perception? Not clear what effect speed of dissolution and concentration on tongue has on sensory Particle size can help in some cases Nano salt (Eminate) claimed to give better sensory effect Taste Seminar June 3 20097

8 Approach 2b: Maximise salt taste Science Pulsed delivery may give increased sensory perception Two papers give opposing results (Busch et al Unilever; Morris et al Nottingham) Both papers tested salt alone, one used salt + bouillon Taste Seminar June 3 20098

9 Approach 2c: Maximise salt taste Science Use food structure to deliver concentrated salt in solution Gelled particles patent by Unilever Complex emulsions can also deliver effect Taste Seminar June 3 20099

10 Approach 3: Psychology Science Reduction by stealth Decrease amounts over months or years and consumer won’t notice Science make people Learn to Like low salt Need messages and rewards Taste Seminar June 3 200910

11 Approach 4: Manipulate taste Use flavour enhancers to try and compensate for lack of salt signal though other signals Taste Seminar June 3 200911 DSM promotes salt-reducing taste enhancer By Anthony Fletcher, 20-Nov-2006 Danisco launches 'novel flavour' salt replacer By Anthony Fletcher, 16-Oct-2006 Purac builds science for salt replacer in meats By Stephen Daniells, 04-Feb-2009 Fonterra salt replacer eases pressure on food firms By Chris Mercer, 10-Nov-2006

12 Conclusion Reduction by stealth has been successful but is either at, or approaching limit L2L is an interesting concept but we don’t know what reward and info people need Salt replacer still eludes us Other methods are not universal Taste Seminar June 3 200912

13 FLAVOUR AND SATIETY Can we control food intake with flavour? Taste Seminar June 3 2009 13

14 Flavour and satiety Science Hypothesis Flavour signals are part of a complex system controlling intake and uptake of nutrients – what is role of flavour? Taste Seminar June 3 2009 14

15 Control of nutrient uptake 15 Athletes 20 years old 80 kg

16 Claims in recent literature Taste Seminar June 3 2009 16 Aroma release during eating is different for soft solids and drinks Hypothesis: Will longer aroma release in drink change satiety feeling? CheeseOrange drink Ruijschop et al., British Journal of Nutrition 2008, 99, (5), 1140-1148.

17 Method: exposure to aroma profile Taste Seminar June 3 2009 17 After exposure, panellists allowed to drink ad libitum

18 Results: actual consumption of a drink Taste Seminar June 3 2009 18 n=27; NSD

19 Results: feeling of satiety Taste Seminar June 3 2009 19 Sweet products Savoury products

20 Claims in recent literature 2 Taste Seminar June 3 2009 20 Hypothesis: People who release more flavour when they eat food will become more satiated Experiment: 30 people ate 9 foods on 3 occasions and their aroma release was measured. They then ate as much Gouda cheese as they wished as a test of satiety

21 Results Taste Seminar June 3 2009 21 Ruijschop et al., Chem. Senses 2009, in press. P=0.07

22 Conclusion Good hypotheses with clear applications if successful Are hypotheses too simple? Are numbers enough for clear interpretation? Tip: Always analyse data in scientific papers to assess the conclusions presented - cf with Hollis & Henry, Journal of Sensory Studies, 2007 Taste Seminar June 3 200922

23 THE SILVER PALATE Flavour perception and needs in old age Taste Seminar June 3 2009 23

24 Growing numbers of old people Opportunities for niche foods? Science: –Sense of flavour diminishes with age –Lack of taste in patients, marker for Alzheimers –Weight reduction in old people partly due to lack of taste perception –Decreased food intake and decreased variety of foods consumed causes deterioration in overall health Taste Seminar June 3 200924

25 Food design for old people Taste Seminar June 3 2009 25 Deliver specific nutrients e.g. GLU Toyama, Biol Pharm Bull 2008 Formulations for stroke patients Prevent choking Make food tastier Griep et al Food Qual & Pref 1997 Mask unpleasant taste of drugs

26 LEARN TO LIKE Using psychology to change our eating habits Taste Seminar June 3 2009 26

27 Learn to like Tastes change with age; we learn to like products that are unpleasant at first –Cause: peer pressure –Reward: Coooool!! Taste Seminar June 3 2009 27

28 Learn to Like: common experience We have learnt to like low fat spreads, low fat milk, reduced fat mayonnaise yoghurt etc. –Why? What factors are involved in learning to like something? –Good for you; spreads from the fridge, low fat, low cholesterol –Can this approach be applied to other food products? Taste Seminar June 3 200928

29 Taste Seminar June 3 2009 29 Learn to like: example Corsodyl toothpaste launch May 2009 –Flavour very different to conventional minty products –Marketed as a challenge to consumers– the 21 day trial –Rewards for consumers: gum and tooth health, new flavour, well known brand, endorsed by Embarrassing Bodies people

30 Taste Seminar June 3 2009 30 Learn to like: example Research at Nottingham What factors drive liking of pasta sauce? –Ingredients: basil, oil, salt –Messages: marketing & label information Ten formulations made Liking tested then non-likers chosen for further study

31 Consumer Liking; formulation 149 consumers used for testing

32 Analysis of consumer results 3 groups from the cluster analysis Cluster 1 (38) Cluster 2 (52) Cluster 3 (59) ‘Healthy’ Iike low fat low salt Intermediate ‘Non- Healthy’ Iike high fat high salt

33 Learn to like: non-sensory cues Taste Seminar June 3 2009 33 The non-likers of the low salt products were fed low salt formulations twice a week for 5 weeks Liking increased significantly Labelling info helped – guess which one?

34 Taste Seminar June 3 2009 34 Potential application Develop methodology to identify compositional drivers of liking for products Apply methodology to reformulate product to obtain max number of “likers” Persuade non-likers to keep trying product until they get used to it Identify rewards that can influence people to like product

35 FLAVOUR IN THE GUT What are flavour receptors doing in the gut and what use might they be to us? Taste Seminar June 3 2009 35

36 Flavour in the gut New research Taste and odour receptors found in gut Sweet taste receptor only system studied so far Taste Seminar June 3 2009 36

37 Schematic of glucose uptake in gut Taste Seminar June 3 2009 37 glucose Active transporter bloodenergy Gate opener sweet tasting compounds Anti-sweet compound Lactisole Shuts the gate

38 Flavour receptors in the gut What do they do? Can they influence nutrient uptake? Should we deliver blockers to decrease uptake? What are the downstream effects? Taste Seminar June 3 200938

39 ACCESSING KNOWLEDGE Who can help you understand, evaluate and apply new knowledge and technologies? Taste Seminar June 3 2009 39

40 Accessing research University PhD or MRes schemes –1 to 3 years at £25k per year Spin out companies –Days to months daily rates £500 to £1000 Research Associations –Campden BRI, Leatherhead FI Consultants –IFST list of consultants daily rates £500 to £1000 Taste Seminar June 3 2009 40

41 Funding innovation Regional Development Agencies (RDA) –East Midlands Development Agency (emda) –Food and Drink iNET up to £10k, 3-10 days Universities –Innovation vouchers £5k (3-7 days) Knowledge Transfer partnerships (KTP) –6-24 month schemes ~£25k pa Taste Seminar June 3 200941

42 Taste Seminar June 3 2009 42 Contact details Andy Taylor 0115 951 6144 Flavometrix Limited Jim Davidson Avinash Kant Emma Weston 0115 951 6097

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