2 In review… Where does photosynthesis take place ? Photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts of higher photosynthetic organisms like a tree. Some Bacteria however have no chloroplasts but photosynthetic membranes within their cells.
3 What does photosynthesis require ? Photosynthesis requires light energy which is captured by special pigments, most notably chlorophyll. This energy is used to create energy-rich carbohydrate molecules (sugar and starch) out of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). During this process oxygen (O2) is released as a by-product. All the oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere which is used by animals and plants for respiration, originates as a by-product of photosynthesis.
4 The process may be summed up in the following formula : 6 CO H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
5 Photosynthesis has two major processes Photosynthesis may be subdivided into two major processes:The light dependent reactions require sunlight so as to utilize its energy to produce the energy-rich molecules ATP and NADP. This phase of photosynthesis is also known as the light phase as it requires light energy.The light independent reactions utilize the energy-rich molecules ATP and NADP which were produced in the light phase. The ATP and NADP are used to produce energy-rich carbohydrate molecules (simple sugars) which can be stored and used as a basis for all other forms of organic molecules. This phase of photosynthesis is also known as the Calvin cycle or dark phase as it does not require light energy.
7 Chlorophyll does not absorb all the wavelengths of visible light equally. Chlorophyll a, the most important light-absorbing pigment in plants, does not absorb light in the green part of the spectrum. Light in this range of wavelengths is reflected. This is the reason why chlorophyll is green and also why plants (which contain a lot of chlorophyll) are also green. Note in the graph above that the absorption of light by chlorophyll a is at a maximum at two points on the graph 430 and 662 nm. The rate of photosynthesis at the different wavelengths of visible light also show two peaks which roughly correspond to the absorption peaks of chlorophyll a. Plants do not depend only on chlorophyll a in their light harvesting machinery but also have other pigments (accessory pigments) which absorb light of different wavelengths.Sunlight contains 4% ultraviolet radiation, 52% infrared radiation and 44% visible light.
10 What does ATP stand for ?ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate and ADP stands for adenosine diphosphate.What does ATP consist of ?ATP is an organic molecule which consists of a nucleotide (adenoisine) and sugar molecule (ribose) and three phosphate molecules.Why is ATP so important ?Cells use ATP as their major source of chemical energy. How this works is as follows. The bonds between the phosphate molecules are energy-rich and they take a large amount of energy to form. When they are broken they release this energy which can be captured and used by the cell for its metabolism. Thus when ATP is transformed to ADP and a single phosphate molecule, energy is released. This energy can be used by the cell to do work (see the diagram on the left). However, the energy which is captured in a molecule of ATP must come from somewhere. That is, it must have taken energy to form the energy-rich bonds between the second and third phosphate molecules in the first place. Photosynthesis is the process which captures this energy from sunlight and forms ATP molecules.
11 The utilization of the energy rich ATP and NADPH molecules formed in the light dependent phase of photosynthesis for the production of energy rich carbohydrates (sugars).During the light dependent phase of photosynthesis, ATP and NADPH molecules accumulate in the stroma of the chlorophast. Although ATP is energy-rich it cannot be stored and it cannot be used for construction within the cell. It is therefore transformed into a carbohydrate (simple sugar) at first. These molecules also have energy-rich bonds, can be stored by cells and are the precursors for all other organic molecules produced by the cell.Carbohydrates contain carbon (C), oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) atoms. The cell obtains the oxygen and hydrogen atoms it needs for their construction from water, and the carbon and oxygen atoms from carbon dioxide present in air. It is during the light independent phase of photosynthesis that the carbon dioxide absorbed by the plant is used.
12 You can follow the light independent phase of photosynthesis (also known as the Calvin cycle or dark phase) in the diagram belownext back begining
13 In Summary…The initial process in photosynthesis is the decomposition of water (H2O) into oxygen, which is released, and hydrogen; direct light is required for this process. The hydrogen and the carbon and oxygen of carbon dioxide (CO2) are then converted into a series of increasingly complex compounds that result finally in a stable organic compound, glucose (C6H12O6), and water. This phase of photosynthesis utilizes stored energy and therefore can proceed in the dark. The simplified equation used to represent this overall process is 6CO2+12H2O+energy=C6H12O6+6O2+6H2O. In general, the results of this process are the reverse of those in respiration, in which carbohydrates are oxidized to release energy, with the production of carbon dioxide and water.
15 Questions for review…1. The organic molecule produced directly by photosynthesis is: a) lipids; b) sugar; c) amino acids; d) DNA2. The photosynthetic process removes ___ from the environment. a) water; b) sugar; c) oxygen; d) chlorophyll; e) carbon dioxide3. The process of splitting water to release hydrogens and electrons occurs during the _____ process. a) light dependent; b) light independent; c) carbon fixation; d) carbon photophosphorylation; e) glycolysis4. The process of fixing carbon dioxide into carbohydrates occurs in the ____ process. a) light dependent; b) light independent; c) ATP synthesis; d) carbon photophosphorylation; e) glycolysis5. Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through ____. a) chloroplasts; b) stomata: c) cuticle; d) mesophyll cells; e) leaf veins6. The cellular transport process by which carbon dioxide enters a leaf (and by which water vapor and oxygen exit) is ___. a) osmosis; b) active transport; c. co- transport; d) diffusion; e) bulk flow7. Which of the following creatures would not be an autotroph? a) cactus; b) cyanobacteria; c) fish; d) palm tree; e) phytoplankton8. The process by which most of the world's autotrophs make their food is known as ____. a) glycolysis; b) photosynthesis; c) chemosynthesis; d) herbivory; e) C-4 cycle9. The process of ___ is how ADP + P are converted into ATP during the Light dependent process. a) glycolysis; b) Calvin Cycle; c) chemiosmosis; d) substrate-level phosphorylation; e) Kreb's Cycle10. Once ATP is converted into ADP + P, it must be ____. a) disassembled into components (sugar, base, phosphates) and then ressembled; b) recharged by chemiosmosis; c) converted into NADPH; d) processed by the glycolysis process; e) converted from matter into energy.
16 11. Generally speaking, the longer the wavelengh of light, the ___ the available energy of that light. a) smaller; b) greater; c) same12. The section of the electromagnetic spectrum used for photosynthesis is ___. a) infrared; b) ultraviolet; c) x-ray; d) visible light; e) none of the above13. The colors of light in the visible range (from longest wavelength to shortest) is ___. a) ROYGBIV; b) VIBGYOR; c) GRBIYV; d) ROYROGERS; e) EBGDF14. The photosynthetic pigment that is essential for the process to occur is ___. a) chlorophyll a; b) chlorophyll b; c) beta carotene; d) xanthocyanin; e) fucoxanthin15. When a pigment reflects red light, _____. a) all colors of light are absorbed; b) all colors of light are reflected; c) green light is reflected, all others are absorbed; d) red light is reflected, all others are absorbed; e) red light is absorbed after it is reflected into the internal pigment molecules.16. Chlorophyll a absorbs light energy in the ____color range. a) yellow-green; b) red-orange; c) blue violet; d) a and b; e) b and c.17. A photosystem is ___. a) a collection of hydrogen-pumping proteins; b) a collection of photosynthetic pigments arranged in a thylakjoid membrane; c) a series of electron-accepting proteins arranged in the thylakoid membrane; d. found only in prokaryotic organisms; e) multiple copies of chlorophyll a located in the stroma of the chloroplast.18. The individual flattened stacks of membrane material inside the chloroplast are known as ___. a) grana; b) stroma; c) thylakoids; d) cristae; e) matrix19. The fluid-filled area of the chloroplast is the ___. a) grana; b) stroma; c) thylakoids; d) cristae; e) matrix20. The chloroplast contains all of these except ___. a) grana; b) stroma; c) DNA; d) membranes; e) endoplasmic reticulum
17 21. The chloroplasts of plants are most close in size to __ 21. The chloroplasts of plants are most close in size to __. a) unfertilized human eggs; b) human cheek cells; c) human nerve cells; d) bacteria in the human mouth; e) viruses22. Which of these photosynthetic organisms does not have a chloroplast? a) plants; b) red algae; c) cyanobacteria; d) diatoms; e) dinoflagellates23. The photoelectric effect refers to ____. a) emission of electrons from a metal when energy of a critical wavelength strikes the metal; b) absorbtion of electrons from the surrounding environment when energy of a critical wavelength is nearby; c) emission of electrons from a metal when struck by any wavelength of light; d) emission of electrons stored in the daytime when stomata are open at night; e) release of NADPH and ATP energy during the Calvin Cycle when light of a specific wavelength strikes the cell.24. Light of the green wavelengths is commonly absorbed by which accessory pigment? a) chlorophyll a; b) chlorophyll b; c) phycocyanin; d) beta carotene25. The function of the electron transport proteins in the thyakoid membranes is ___. a) production of ADP by chemiosmosis; b) production of NADPH by substrate-level phosphorylation; c) pumping of hydrogens into the thylakoid space for later generation of ATP by chemiosmosis; d) pumping of hydrogens into the inner cristae space for later generation of ATP by chemiosmosis; e) preparation of water for eventual incorporation into glucose26. ATP is known as the energy currency of the cell because ____. a) ATP is the most readily usable form of energy for cells; b) ATP passes energy along in an electron transport chain; c) ATP energy is passed to NADPH; d) ATP traps more energy than is produced in its formation; e) only eukaryotic cells use this energy currency.
18 27. Both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation produce ATP 27. Both cyclic and noncyclic photophosphorylation produce ATP. We can infer that the purpose of ATP in photosynthesis is to ____. a) supply hydrogen to the carbohydrate; b) supply carbon to the carbohydrate; c) supply energy that can be used to form a carbohydrate; d) transfer oxygens from the third phosphate group to the carbohydrate molecule; e) convert RuBP into PGA28. The role of NADPH in oxygen-producing photosynthesis is to ____. a) supply hydrogen to the carbohydrate; b) supply carbon to the carbohydrate; c) supply energy that can be used to form a carbohydrate; d) transfer oxygens from the third phosphate group to the carbohydrate molecule; e) convert RuBP into PGA.29. The dark reactions require all of these chemicals to proceed except ___. a) ATP; b) NADPH; c) carbon dioxide; d) RUBP; e) oxygen30. The first stable chemical formed by the Calvin Cycle is _____. a) RUBP; b) RU/18; c) PGA; d) PGAL; e) Rubisco31. The hydrogen in the carbohydrate produced by the Calvin Cycle comes from ___ a.) ATP; b) NADPH; c) the environment if the pH is very acidic; d) a and b; e) a and c32. The carbon incorporated into the carbohydrate comes from ___. a) ATP; b) NADPH; c) carbon dioxide; d) glucose; e) organic molecules33. C-4 photosynthesis is so named because _____. a) it produces a three carbon compound as the first stable product of photosynthesis; b) it produces a four carbon compound as the first stable product of photosynthesis; c) it produces four ATP and four NADPH molecules for carbon fixation.; d) there are only four steps in this form of carbon fixation into carbohydrate.