Other sources of Calcium Food (per serving)Calcium content Seaweed (per 100g)900 mg Sardines in tomato sauce (100g)430 mg White flour (100g)350 mg Salmon, tinned (100g)300 mg Rice Krispies (30g)136 mg Spinach boiled in unsalted water (80g)128 mg Sesame seeds (per 15g)101 mg Brown bread (1 slice)56 mg Broccoli boiled in unsalted water (80g)32 mg Dietplan 6
Per serving Calories kcal Carbs (g) Sugar (g) Fat (g) Sat fat (g) Calcium (mg) Low-Fat Milk (200ml) Vie Shot Water Capri-Sun Tropicana Go!
Dairy and body weight Those who meet the recommendations for milk, cheese & yogurt are less likely to be obese (NOTF 2005)
Fat content of Milk MilkFat (%) Skimmed (slimmers)0.5% Semi-skimmed (low fat)1.5% Fortified (usually low fat)1.5% Whole milk (full fat milk!)3.5% 1 200ml glass of whole milk = 7g fat 1 200ml glass of low fat fortified milk = 3g Total fat in a day – GDA woman = 70g
Which milk at what Age? Age in YearsMilk Type Babies under 1breast / formula Toddlers 1 to 2whole milk Children 2 to 5, Older children, Teenagers, Adults. low fat fortified milk Adults Slimmingskimmed milk Older peoplelow fat fortified milk
Bone Development 90% by late teens Its never too late to maintain healthy bones!
Dental Health Calcium and phosphate in milk help to protect tooth enamel Casein (milk protein) is also protective Forms a thin protective film on the enamel surface which prevents loss of calcium and phosphate from the enamel when the teeth are exposed to acids
Dairy & Sports vs Physical activity helps to strengthen bones School milk programme – boost calcium intakes
Milk & Rehydration Water, sugar (lactose) and electrolytes (sodium & potassium) in skimmed milk make it a good recovery solution after exercise. Skimmed milk more effective than water & sports drinks at rehydrating the body after exercise (1, 2) Milk contains good quality protein and has been shown in studies to be effective in inducing protein synthesis and in reducing exercise induced muscle damage (1) Shireffs et al (2007); (2) Watson et al (2008)
Milk & Muscle Recovery Carbohydrates and proteins in milk may help to prevent exercise-induced muscle damage Semi-skimmed milk or milkshake (for athletes) - effective Milk contains good quality protein and has been shown in studies to be effective in inducing protein synthesis and in reducing exercise induced muscle damage post exercise. Cockburn et al (2008)
The Sunshine Vitamin D In the absence of vitamin D we cannot absorb more than 15% of the calcium we consume. Prof R. Heaney, Prof of Medicine, Creighton Uni, Nebraska. Low levels of Vitamin D linked to : Rickets in children Osteomalacia Osteoporosis Diabetes Colon / breast cancer High blood pressure Peridontal disease Chronic pain
Importance of Vitamin D Low blood levels of vitamin D had twice the risk of a cardiovascular event in the following five years compared to those with higher levels of vitamin D Ref: Vitamin D deficiency and risk of cardiovascular disease. Circulation Jan 29;117(4): Vitamin D Sources Sunlight Fortified Dairy products Fortified breakfast cereal Oily fish Eggs
Vitamin D intakes in Ireland North/South Food Consumption Survey National Childrens Food Survey Adult RDAActual Adult Intakes Actual Child Intakes 10 ug / day 75% have an intake of less than ½ the recommended levels. 88% primary schoolchildren dont meet recommended levels.
Dairy & Blood Pressure
The DASH diet Reduced blood pressure within 2 weeks on a diet containing: fruit and vegetables (8-10 servings / day) low-fat dairy products (2-3 servings / day) reduced sodium intake (3g / day) Appel LJ et al (1997, 2006).
Blood Pressure & Adolescents DASH-type diet also shown to lower blood pressure in adolescents with high blood pressure Study encouraged adolescents to consume fruit, veg & low fat dairy (no specific calorie recommendation made) Participants educated in reducing sodium intakes 50% of participants achieved normal BP levels Couch et al (2008)
Whats the magic ingredient? Combination of factors: Fruit & veg intakes Low salt intakes Calcium in milk Milk peptides (1) May help to relax blood vessels (1) Xu et al (2008)
Bone Health Calcium Involved in bone formation Vitamin D Helps the body to use calcium Phosphorus Helps with bone calcification Magnesium Protein
Osteoporosis Bones = scaffolding for our body Skeleton allows us to move & provides a protective cage for our internal organs Known as a silent disease because, until a fracture occurs, symptoms can be absent
Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Modifiable Lifestyle FactorsDifficult to Modify Factors Excessive intake of caffeineAdvanced age Excessive intake of saltEndocrine disorders e.g. diabetes Excessive intake of vitamin ABowel disorders e.g. IBS Alcoholism / high intake (>3 drinks/day)Blood disorders e.g. leukaemia Calcium deficiencyPrior fracture Vitamin D deficiencyFamily history of osteoporosis Low activity levelsGenetic disorders e.g. cystic fibrosis Low weightHigh risk medication use e.g. corticosteroids