Presentation on theme: "The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department What was the course of the Gallipoli campaign of 1915?"— Presentation transcript:
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department What was the course of the Gallipoli campaign of 1915?
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department Presentation objectives To understand the chronology of the Gallipoli campaign of To identify the key stages and turning points of the Gallipoli campaign. To begin to examine the reasons why the Gallipoli campaign failed.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department What were the key stages of the Gallipoli campaign? The early battles – April - July The August offensive. The evacuation of Allied soldiers from Gallipoli – October, 1915 – January, 1916.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department What was the initial plan of attack on Gallipoli? The initial Allied landings on Gallipoli were made on 25 th April The plan was that forces would quickly move inland and capture the Turkish defences before the Turks could respond. The ANZAC troops landed on a bay at the northern section of Gallipoli. British forces landed at five beaches on Cape Helles – the southern tip of Gallipoli. These beaches were code named S, V,W, X, Y beaches.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department Why did the initial Allied landings at Gallipoli fail? It was clear when the landings took place that the officers leading the invasion did not have clear orders on what actions to take. On S, X and Y beaches on Cape Helles, there were practically no Turkish defenders. But with no orders, the British troops waited for instructions. This crucial delay gave the Turks valuable time to reorganise their defences on Cape Helles. Instead of moving quickly, the British officers ordered troops to dig trenches and prepare for a Turkish attack. It was at this point when the British lost the initiative.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department Why did the initial Allied landings at Gallipoli fail? On W and V beaches and at ANZAC Cove, the Allied forces faced the Turkish defences at their strongest. The Turkish defenders were positioned high up on the cliffs surrounding the beaches. With the Allied troops using open-air boat, they proved to be an easy target for the Turks.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department Why did the initial Allied landings at Gallipoli fail? The landings became chaotic as Allied troops were under heavy fire which they did not expect and they were cut off from their officers. With the cliffs heavily defended and the Turks not having enough men to force the Allies off the beaches, the Allied soldiers were pinned to the beaches. What made things even worse was that the Allied command was positioned in a battleship miles away. Therefore, the orders for the troops on the different landing points were badly coordinated.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department How did a stalemate develop between May – July 1915? After the sinkings of the battleships Goliath and Triumph in May, the Gallipoli campaign became a purely land campaign. Both sides dug trenches which were very close to each other. At many parts of the trench system, both sides could hear what each other were saying. The Turks launched a huge offensive on ANZAC Cove on 19 th May. However, the attack backfired when ANZAC troops heard of the plans. The Turks suffered 10,000 losses compared to 168 for the ANZACS.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department How did a stalemate develop between May – July 1915? With the indecisive Third Battle of Krithia at Cape Helles on 4 th June, any thought of a Allied breakthrough were dismissed as the stalemate of trench warfare dominated the campaign. Casualties ran for both sides at 25%. Throughout June and July, no breakthroughs were made. With the onset of summer, conditions were made worse with increasing heat, insufficient water supplies, flies and unhygienic living conditions. As a result, deadly diseases such as dysentery broke out.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department Why did the attack on Suvla Bay fail in August 1915? With no Allied progress being made at Cape Helles and at ANZAC Cove, Hamilton decided to change tactics and attack at different section in Gallipoli. The chosen place of attack was Suvla Bay – a thinly defended area – which was to be attacked on 6 th August. The original tactics were the land on the bay and march six miles inland and seize a range of low hills. However, the leader of the force, General Stopford, failed top order his troops forward when they landed on the bay. This indecisiveness wasted any opportunity of success for the Allies at Suvla Bay.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department Why did the attack on Suvla Bay fail in August 1915? Stopfords hesitation led to Suvla Bay becoming another front for trench warfare for the Allies. This failure cost many Allied lives and Stopford was sacked. Throughout August, the Allies tried to make a push through Suvla Bay with key offensives at the Nek and Scimitar Hill. All these failed with the Turks holding the positions with great human cost. By the end of August, it was clear that the attack on Suvla Bay was a failure and with it so was the Gallipoli campaign.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department How was the decision to evacuate the Allied troops at Gallipoli reached in October 1915? September and early October 1915, saw a hiatus in the Gallipoli campaign as Allied morale collapsed. Negative reports were smuggled out to be printed in newspapers as well as disaffected officers, such as Stopford, were making themselves heard. By October, Hamilton rejected the proposal to evacuate Allied troops from Gallipoli. He was sacked and was replaced by Sir Charles Monro, who agreed to the evacuation.
The Hemel Hempstead School - History Department How were troops evacuated from Gallipoli from November 1915 – January 1916? The evacuation of Gallipoli began in November Although it was hampered by fierce storms and blizzards in late November. ANZAC Cove and Suvla Bay were evacuated by December. The last British troops left Cape Helles by the beginning of January 1916.