Presentation on theme: "KINGDOM PROTISTA Conglomerate of organisms which do not fit into other 4 Kingdoms Moneran (bacteria), Animalia, Plantae, Fungi Much more complicated than."— Presentation transcript:
1 KINGDOM PROTISTAConglomerate of organisms which do not fit into other 4 KingdomsMoneran (bacteria), Animalia, Plantae, FungiMuch more complicated than MoneransThey represent the intermediate step in the evolution of the other three kingdomsProtozoan is the Greek word for “first animal”Contains about 65,000 species
2 Eukaryotes have cellular organelles, and prokaryotes (bacteria) do not KINGDOM PROTISTAMade up of a complex eukaryotic cell (unicellular) or cells (multicellular)Eukaryotes have cellular organelles, and prokaryotes (bacteria) do notPrefix uniOne (single)Prefix multiMore than one (many)Kingdom has organisms that demonstrate both animal and plant-like characteristicsSome members make their own food (________)autotrophsheterotrophsSome ingest food from outside (____________)
3 Organisms separated based on feeding behaviors KINGDOM PROTISTAOrganisms separated based on feeding behaviorsAutotrophsHeterotrophsgreen algae brown algae red algae diatoms dinoflagellates euglenoidsamoeboids ciliates zooflagellates sporozoans plasmodial slime molds cellular slime molds water molds(good pics also)
4 All Protozoa can reproduce asexually One “parent” for reproductionCalled binary fissionDuring binary fission, one protozoan cell divides into two identical individuals.
5 KINGDOM PROTISTAInhabit aquatic (______) areas and terrestrial (_____) areaswaterlandProtists are classified into 12 Phyla which can be placed into 3 main groupsplant-likefungus-likeanimal-like
7 tiny beating hair-like structures Animal-like protistsAll heterotrophsclassified by the 4 ways they move:1) Cilia -tiny beating hair-like structuresCoordinated movement between individual cilia2) Flagellum(a) -whip-like tail(s)Back and forth wave motion
8 classified by the 4 ways they move: Animal-like protistsclassified by the 4 ways they move:3) Pseudopodia -projection of cytoplasm that sticks out like a foot (“false foot”)4) Sessile -No locomotion (_________)movement
9 Animal-like protists - Examples 1. Amoebajust visible to the naked eyecomes from the Greek word amoibe which means “change”unicellularmoves by pseudopodia which give appearance of cell changing size and shapeAmoeba movie #aquatic - lives in ponds, ditches or slowly moving streamscan cause disease – amoebic dysenteryingests small organisms like bacteria and other protozoans
10 Animal-like protists - Examples 1. Amoebafeeding sequencepsuedopodia surround and engulf food particleprocess called phagocytosis
11 Animal-like protists - Examples 2. ParameciumUnicellular, slipper-shapedmove by coordinated beating of many ciliaaquatic - mostly found in ponds and streamsusually do not cause diseases in humans
12 Animal-like protists - Examples 2. Paramecium - continuedFeeding occurs in the funnel-shaped gullet (buccal cavity) where food is drawn in by external and internal cilia to form food vacuolepg_07.htmingests organic detritus and other small organisms like bacteria and other protozoans
15 Animal-like protists - Examples 2. Paramecium - continuedReproduction2. Conjugation (________)sexualForm structure called conjugation tube to exchange genetic material
16 Animal-like protists: The Sporozoan Characteristics of Sporozoans (Animal-like)Sporozoa do not move on their ownmostly common in tropical areasprotist that reproduce by forming sporesthey are usually parasiticsporozoans named Plasmodium causes malariaits caused by female mosquitoshumans get malaria when bitten by an infected mosquito
18 PLANT-LIKE PROTISTHave chlorophyllMake their own foodThey can live in 4 main environments:soilfreshwatertree barksalt waterthey produce large amounts of oxygen which are used by other living organismsthey are grouped according to color & stuctureinto 5 main groups:2) diatoms3) dinoflagelletes1) euglena5) algae4) red dinoflagellates
19 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d they are grouped according to color & stuctureA) EuglenaD) Red DinoflagellatesB) DiatomE) Green AlgaeC) Dinoflagellates
20 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d A) Euglena-one celled alga that moves with one flagellumlives in fresh waterreproduces asexuallyred eyespot near front end to find light…Why?have chlorophyll and can make their own food ( )autotroph
21 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d A) Euglena Continued-contains disk-shaped chloroplastsorganelle is the site of photosynthesis and gets its name from the presence of the green pigments (the chlorophylls)
22 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d B) Diatombeautiful one celled protistscome in many shapesEX: boats, rods, disks, trianglesimportant food source for water dwelling animalscell covering is made up of 2 overlapping partsThink of a box with a lidmade of the same material as glasscell coverings do not decay (when dead)used for toothpaste, scouring powders, & filters
23 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d C) DinoflagellatesAlgae that is usually found in oceansUsually brown or red in colorHave hidden chlorophyll due to dark pigmentsMove by two flagellaRead & Highlight hand-out on Dinoflagellates
24 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d RedDinoflagellatesproduce large numbers which turns the ocean redresponsible for “red tides”produce chemicals that kill thousands of fishhumans can become ill if they eat shell fish that have absorbed these chemicalscommon off the coast of Florida or other warmer areas
26 Absorbed red dinoflagellates Red Tide Kills Fish Absorbed red dinoflagellatesAfter encountering and absorbing a red tide..a stingray becomes disoriented. They have the appearance of not being able to see or control what they are doing. Eventually the ray will stay at the surface lying horizontally and die.
27 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d E) Green AlgaespirogyraCome in many different formscan be unicellular or multicellularthey produce O2 in H2Oserve as food for fish, snails, and crayfishusually found in “colonies”Colony – a group of cells that live togethercourses/envr429-rm/Use for lab conjugation picturesdesmidschlorella
28 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d Algae ExamplesEX: volvox colonyArranged in a single layer with flagella facing outwardThe flagella beat and the colony spins through the waterEX: Kelp (brown algae) …aka….“sea weed”used by humans for foodalso used to thicken food such as ice cream and jelly
30 FUNGUS-LIKE PROTISTSlime Molds:fungus-like protists that are consumerslive in cool, damp places EX: forest floorfeed on bacteria growing on rotting logs and decaying leavessome are parasites (very few)
31 FUNGUS-LIKE PROTISTLife Cycle of Slime Molds:Step 1 –slimy mass that moves like an amoebabeautiful colors of red, yellow, or violetStep 2 –stops growing and movingproduces spores inside a structure on a stalkStep 3 –spores develop into little cells w/ flagellathen each cell loses its flagella and grows into a slimy mass again
32 Life Cycle of Slime Mold 132Life Cycle of Slime Mold
33 Directions: Write out & highlight the following questions 1) List the three main (groups) types of protists?2) Give two examples of animal-like protists.3) What are sporozoans? Give one example.4) List the 3 structures protozoan use for locomotion.5) List 5 plant-like protists?6) Why are algae important?7) Explain why red tides occur and what causes them.
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