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1 KINGDOM PROTISTA Conglomerate of organisms which do not fit into other 4 Kingdoms Moneran (bacteria), Animalia, Plantae, Fungi Much more complicated.

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Presentation on theme: "1 KINGDOM PROTISTA Conglomerate of organisms which do not fit into other 4 Kingdoms Moneran (bacteria), Animalia, Plantae, Fungi Much more complicated."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 KINGDOM PROTISTA Conglomerate of organisms which do not fit into other 4 Kingdoms Moneran (bacteria), Animalia, Plantae, Fungi Much more complicated than Monerans They represent the intermediate step in the evolution of the other three kingdoms Contains about 65,000 species Protozoan is the Greek word for “first animal”

3 2 Made up of a complex eukaryotic cell (unicellular) or cells (multicellular) Eukaryotes have cellular organelles, and prokaryotes (bacteria) do not KINGDOM PROTISTA Prefix uni One (single) Prefix multiMore than one (many) Kingdom has organisms that demonstrate both animal and plant-like characteristics Some members make their own food (________)autotrophs Some ingest food from outside (____________) heterotrophs

4 3 KINGDOM PROTISTA Autotrophs green algae brown algae red algae diatoms dinoflagellates euglenoids Heterotrophs amoeboids ciliates zooflagellates sporozoans plasmodial slime molds cellular slime molds water molds Organisms separated based on feeding behaviors

5 4 asexuallyAll Protozoa can reproduce asexually binary fissionCalled binary fission During binary fission, one protozoan cell divides into two identical individuals. One “parent” for reproduction

6 5 Inhabit aquatic (______) areas and terrestrial (_____) areas water land Protists are classified into 12 Phyla which can be placed into 3 main groups animal-like plant-like fungus-like KINGDOM PROTISTA

7 6 Kingdom Protista

8 7 Animal-like protists classified by the 4 ways they move: Cilia 1) Cilia - Flagellum(a) 2) Flagellum(a) - Coordinated movement between individual cilia Back and forth wave motion tiny beating hair-like structures whip-like tail(s) All heterotrophs

9 8 Pseudopodia - 3) Pseudopodia - Animal-like protists classified by the 4 ways they move: projection of cytoplasm that sticks out like a foot (“false foot”) Sessile 4) Sessile - No locomotion (_________)movement

10 9 1. Amoeba   just visible to the naked eye   moves by pseudopodia which give appearance of cell changing size and shape   comes from the Greek word amoibe which means “change” Animal-like protists - Examples   unicellular   aquatic - lives in ponds, ditches or slowly moving streams   can cause disease – amoebic dysentery   ingests small organisms like bacteria and other protozoans

11 10 1. Amoeba Animal-like protists - Examples   feeding sequence   psuedopodia surround and engulf food particle   process called phagocytosis

12 11 2. Paramecium Animal-like protists - Examples Unicellular, slipper-shaped move by coordinated beating of many cilia aquatic - mostly found in ponds and streams usually do not cause diseases in humans

13 12 2. Paramecium - continued Animal-like protists - Examples Feeding occurs in the funnel-shaped gullet (buccal cavity) where food is drawn in by external and internal cilia to form food vacuole ingests organic detritus and other small organisms like bacteria and other protozoans

14 13 2. Paramecium - continued Animal-like protists - Examples Food to waste pathway

15 14 2. Paramecium - continued Animal-like protists - Examples Reproduction 1. Binary fission (________)asexual N = nucleus F =Fission plane

16 15 2. Conjugation (________)sexual 2. Paramecium - continued Animal-like protists - Examples Reproduction Form structure called conjugation tube to exchange genetic material

17 16 protist that reproduce by forming spores sporozoans named Plasmodium causes malaria its caused by female mosquitos humans get malaria when bitten by an infected mosquito mostly common in tropical areas Sporozoa do not move on their own they are usually parasitic Characteristics of Sporozoans (Animal-like) Animal-like protists: The Sporozoan

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19 18 Have chlorophyll Make their own food They can live in 4 main environments: salt water soil tree bark freshwater PLANT-LIKE PROTIST they produce large amounts of oxygen which are used by other living organisms they are grouped according to color & stucture into 5 main groups: 4) red dinoflagellates 2) diatoms 5) algae 1) euglena 3) dinoflagelletes

20 19 they are grouped according to color & stucture PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d A) Euglena B) Diatom C) Dinoflagellates D) Red Dinoflagellates E) Green Algae

21 20 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d A) Euglena- one celled alga that moves with one flagellum red eyespot near front end to find light…Why? lives in fresh water reproduces asexually have chlorophyll and can make their own food ( ) autotroph

22 21 organelle is the site of photosynthesis and gets its name from the presence of the green pigments (the chlorophylls) contains disk-shaped chloroplasts PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d A) Euglena Continued-

23 22 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d B) Diatom beautiful one celled protists come in many shapes EX: boats, rods, disks, triangles important food source for water dwelling animals cell covering is made up of 2 overlapping parts made of the same material as glass Think of a box with a lid cell coverings do not decay (when dead) used for toothpaste, scouring powders, & filters

24 23 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d C) Dinoflagellates Algae that is usually found in oceans Usually brown or red in color Have hidden chlorophyll due to dark pigments Move by two flagella Read & Highlight hand-out on Dinoflagellates

25 24 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d produce large numbers which turns the ocean red responsible for “red tides” produce chemicals that kill thousands of fish humans can become ill if they eat shell fish that have absorbed these chemicals common off the coast of Florida or other warmer areas

26 25  Red Tide 

27 26  Red Tide Kills Fish  After encountering and absorbing a red tide..a stingray becomes disoriented. They have the appearance of not being able to see or control what they are doing. Eventually the ray will stay at the surface lying horizontally and die. Absorbed red dinoflagellates

28 27 PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d E) Green Algae Come in many different forms can be unicellular or multicellular usually found in “colonies” Colony – a group of cells that live together they produce O 2 in H 2 O serve as food for fish, snails, and crayfish desmids spirogyra chlorella

29 28 EX: volvox colony Arranged in a single layer with flagella facing outward The flagella beat and the colony spins through the water PLANT-LIKE PROTIST Cont’d Algae Examples EX: Kelp (brown algae) …aka….“sea weed” used by humans for food also used to thicken food such as ice cream and jelly

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31 30 FUNGUS-LIKE PROTIST Slime Molds: fungus-like protists that are consumers live in cool, damp places EX: forest floor feed on bacteria growing on rotting logs and decaying leaves some are parasites (very few)

32 31 FUNGUS-LIKE PROTIST Life Cycle of Slime Molds: Step 1 – slimy mass that moves like an amoeba beautiful colors of red, yellow, or violet Step 2 – stops growing and moving produces spores inside a structure on a stalk Step 3 – spores develop into little cells w/ flagella then each cell loses its flagella and grows into a slimy mass again

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34 33 1) List the three main (groups) types of protists? 2) Give two examples of animal-like protists. 3) What are sporozoans? Give one example. 4) List the 3 structures protozoan use for locomotion. 5) List 5 plant-like protists? 6) Why are algae important? 7) Explain why red tides occur and what causes them. Directions: Write out & highlight the following questions


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