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Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2005 1 Chapter 6 Social Influence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn and Bacon 2005 1 Chapter 6 Social Influence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Chapter 6 Social Influence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program

2 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Influence Have you ever: Asked a friend what was appropriate to wear to a dinner, party, or wedding? Agreed to buy something you didn’t want? Agreed to attend a social event because someone else asked you to? Changed your behavior in response to a direct order from a police officer, parent, teacher, or school official? Have you ever: Asked a friend what was appropriate to wear to a dinner, party, or wedding? Agreed to buy something you didn’t want? Agreed to attend a social event because someone else asked you to? Changed your behavior in response to a direct order from a police officer, parent, teacher, or school official?

3 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Chapter Outline Categories of Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience Goals of Social Influence: Choosing Correctly Gaining Social Approval Being Consistent with Commitments Categories of Social Influence: Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience Goals of Social Influence: Choosing Correctly Gaining Social Approval Being Consistent with Commitments

4 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Influence Social influence – a change in overt behavior caused by real or imagined pressure from others

5 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Categories of Social Influence Conformity – changing one’s behavior to match the responses or actions of others (no pressure necessarily)

6 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Categories of Social Influence Compliance – changing one’s behavior in response to a direct request

7 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Categories of Social Influence Obedience – changing one’s behavior in response to a directive from an authority figure

8 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon A 123 What would you say if you were in a group of 6 others, and all agreed the answer was 3? Conformity: Asch’s Research on Group Influence Which of the lines on the left most closely matches line A on the right?

9 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon A 123 But 75% went against their own eyes at least once if the group gave a wrong answer. Conformity: Asch’s Research on Group Influence When alone, 95% of participants got all the answers correct.

10 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Conformity: Asch’s Research on Group Influence Conclusion: People faced with strong group consensus sometimes go along even though they think the others may be wrong.

11 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Compliance Someday he will ask you for a favor. (Reciprocation)

12 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Compliance: The “Foot-in-the- Door” Technique Foot-in-the-door technique – a technique which increases compliance with a large request by first getting compliance with a smaller, related request

13 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Compliance: The “Foot-in-the- Door” Technique Example: People are first asked to wear a tiny button supporting a worthy cause; Later they are asked to put a billboard on their lawn. Example: People are first asked to wear a tiny button supporting a worthy cause; Later they are asked to put a billboard on their lawn.

14 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Focus on Method: Participant Observation Participant observation – a research approach in which the researcher infiltrates the setting of interest to examine it from within

15 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Focus on Method: Participant Observation Cialdini used participant observation to study influence techniques used by successful compliance pros. He enrolled in the training programs of a broad range of professions: sales, advertising, public relations, recruitment. Cialdini used participant observation to study influence techniques used by successful compliance pros. He enrolled in the training programs of a broad range of professions: sales, advertising, public relations, recruitment.

16 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Focus on Method: Participant Observation These observations suggested six widely used and successful influence principles: Reciprocation Commitment/Consistency Authority Social Validation Scarcity Liking/Friendship These observations suggested six widely used and successful influence principles: Reciprocation Commitment/Consistency Authority Social Validation Scarcity Liking/Friendship

17 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Commitment

18 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Appeal to Authority

19 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Scarcity

20 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Liking/Friendship (Similarity)

21 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Obedience: Milgram’s Shock(ing) Procedure What would you do if an experimenter studying “the effects of punishment on memory” asked you to deliver painful electric shocks to a fellow participant? What if the other participant was a middle-aged man who had been treated for a heart condition? What would you do if an experimenter studying “the effects of punishment on memory” asked you to deliver painful electric shocks to a fellow participant? What if the other participant was a middle-aged man who had been treated for a heart condition?

22 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Slight Shock Moderate Shock Strong Shock Very Strong Shock Intense Shock Extreme Shock DangerXXX esearch esearch Milgram’s Shock Generator

23 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon “Ugh!” “Hey! This Really Hurts!” “That’s All! Get me out of here! I told you I had heart trouble. My heart is starting to bother me now! Get me out of here, please! ….Let me out!” “Let me out of here! Let me out of here! My heart’s bothering me!… You have no right to hold me here! Let me out! Let me out! Let me out!” esearch esearch …silence... Experimenter: “Treat no response as a wrong response. Deliver the next higher level of shock.” Statements By Shock Recipient:

24 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon All Obeyed All Still Obeying All Still Obeying All Still Obeying 1 of 4 Stopped 1 of 8 more Stopped Over 60% Still Obedient esearch esearch How Many Obeyed?

25 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon % 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Researcher Commands More Shock Obedience To Authority esearch esearch Fellow Subject Commands More Shock Victim Commands More Shock Two Researchers Issue Contrary Commands 65% 20% 0% Percent Obedient Results suggest it is the authority’s orders that were crucial (and not other factors such as participant aggressiveness)

26 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon The Goals of Social Influence People yield to social influence to achieve one or more of three basic goals: To choose correctly To gain social approval To be consistent with commitments People yield to social influence to achieve one or more of three basic goals: To choose correctly To gain social approval To be consistent with commitments

27 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Choosing Correctly We have a motive for competence (to master our environments for rewards and resources). To be competent, we must make correct choices. We have a motive for competence (to master our environments for rewards and resources). To be competent, we must make correct choices.

28 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Authority Authority figures can be very influential because they are often experts. Following their directions can provide a shortcut to choosing correctly. Expert power – the capacity to influence that flows from one’s presumed wisdom or knowledge Authority figures can be very influential because they are often experts. Following their directions can provide a shortcut to choosing correctly. Expert power – the capacity to influence that flows from one’s presumed wisdom or knowledge

29 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Validation Social validation – an interpersonal way to locate and validate the correct choice People frequently look to the behavior of similar others for social validation. The larger the number of people performing the behavior, the more persuasive it is. Social validation – an interpersonal way to locate and validate the correct choice People frequently look to the behavior of similar others for social validation. The larger the number of people performing the behavior, the more persuasive it is.

30 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Uncertainty In ambiguous situations, people tend to rely on information provided by others. Sherif asked students to judge the apparent movement of a stationary light on a wall (autokinetic effect). Judgments were strongly influenced by what other group members said. In ambiguous situations, people tend to rely on information provided by others. Sherif asked students to judge the apparent movement of a stationary light on a wall (autokinetic effect). Judgments were strongly influenced by what other group members said.

31 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Consensus and Similarity We are especially likely to follow the behavior of others when: there is strong consensus among the others (example: a large group all agrees that the shorter line is the longest one) We are especially likely to follow the behavior of others when: there is strong consensus among the others (example: a large group all agrees that the shorter line is the longest one)

32 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Consensus and Similarity We are especially likely to follow the behavior of others when: the others are highly similar to us Example: “copycat” suicides involve individuals similar in age and sex to the victim in highly publicized cases. We are especially likely to follow the behavior of others when: the others are highly similar to us Example: “copycat” suicides involve individuals similar in age and sex to the victim in highly publicized cases.

33 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Uncertainty and the Desire for Accuracy Robert S. Baron, Joseph Vandello, and Bethany Brunsman (1996) asked students to choose a criminal suspect from a line-up. Some saw the pictures so quickly it was hard to be certain about their conclusions, Others had ample time to be certain. Robert S. Baron, Joseph Vandello, and Bethany Brunsman (1996) asked students to choose a criminal suspect from a line-up. Some saw the pictures so quickly it was hard to be certain about their conclusions, Others had ample time to be certain.

34 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Uncertainty and the Desire for Accuracy Some were motivated to be accurate with the promise of a $20 prize, Others had no incentive. Some were motivated to be accurate with the promise of a $20 prize, Others had no incentive.

35 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon % Uncertainty and Desire for Accuracy 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% LOW esearch esearch Importance of Accuracy HIGH Percent Conforming When participants were certain, motivation to be accurate DECREASED conformity When participants were uncertain of their own judgments, motivation to be accurate INCREASED conformity

36 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Gaining Social Approval Sometimes being factually correct may make us unpopular. Groups put strong pressure on those with deviant positions. Sometimes being factually correct may make us unpopular. Groups put strong pressure on those with deviant positions.

37 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Norms: Codes of Conduct Descriptive norms – norms that define what behaviors are typically performed Example: Most college students dress casually for classes. Descriptive norms – norms that define what behaviors are typically performed Example: Most college students dress casually for classes.

38 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Norms: Codes of Conduct Injunctive norms – norms that define what behaviors are typically approved or disapproved Example: It is inappropriate to wear a bathing suit to most classes. Injunctive norms – norms that define what behaviors are typically approved or disapproved Example: It is inappropriate to wear a bathing suit to most classes.

39 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Norms: Codes of Conduct Norm of reciprocity – the norm that requires that we repay others with the form of behavior they have given us. Norms of Obligation across Cultures: page 205 Norm of reciprocity – the norm that requires that we repay others with the form of behavior they have given us. Norms of Obligation across Cultures: page 205

40 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Norms: Codes of Conduct Cultural norms of reciprocity – Market-based Family-based Friendship-based System-based Influenced by the person/situation dynamic. Cultural norms of reciprocity – Market-based Family-based Friendship-based System-based Influenced by the person/situation dynamic.

41 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Norms: Codes of Conduct The door-in-the-face technique works by asking for a large favor and then retreating to a smaller favor. This second request is typically accepted because the concession seems like a favor. Thus, this technique capitalizes on the reciprocity norm. The door-in-the-face technique works by asking for a large favor and then retreating to a smaller favor. This second request is typically accepted because the concession seems like a favor. Thus, this technique capitalizes on the reciprocity norm.

42 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Social Norms: Codes of Conduct The that’s-not-all technique works by making an initial offer, and then just before the target responds, enhancing the offer. The enhancement is designed to seem like a favor, and capitalize on reciprocity. The that’s-not-all technique works by making an initial offer, and then just before the target responds, enhancing the offer. The enhancement is designed to seem like a favor, and capitalize on reciprocity.

43 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Desire for Approval Certain individuals are very concerned with social approval and seem highly motivated to gain the respect of those around them. Researchers have found that these individuals tend to adopt the voice patterns of interaction partners. (Larry King, page 195) Certain individuals are very concerned with social approval and seem highly motivated to gain the respect of those around them. Researchers have found that these individuals tend to adopt the voice patterns of interaction partners. (Larry King, page 195)

44 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Collective Sense of Self Individualists define themselves in personal and individualized terms, focusing on features that distinguish them from others (example: I am a tall bassoon player). Collectivists define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong (example: I am a Muslim family man). Page 205 Individualists define themselves in personal and individualized terms, focusing on features that distinguish them from others (example: I am a tall bassoon player). Collectivists define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong (example: I am a Muslim family man). Page 205

45 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Resistance (Reactance theory) Certain factors cause people to resist social influence; “omega forces” p. 207 Disrupt-then-reframe technique – a tactic that operates to increase compliance by disrupting one’s initial, resistance-laden view of a request and quickly reframing the request in more favorable terms Certain factors cause people to resist social influence; “omega forces” p. 207 Disrupt-then-reframe technique – a tactic that operates to increase compliance by disrupting one’s initial, resistance-laden view of a request and quickly reframing the request in more favorable terms

46 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Who’s Strong Enough to Resist Strong Group Norms? Even strong group norms (e.g. about drinking or smoking) may not influence a person’s behavior if The person believes he or she has the ability to resist group norms. The person does not identify strongly with the group. Even strong group norms (e.g. about drinking or smoking) may not influence a person’s behavior if The person believes he or she has the ability to resist group norms. The person does not identify strongly with the group.

47 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Factors Affecting Social Approval Others’ Appeal We are more likely to “go along to get along” when the person attempting to influence us is appealing due to: 1. Physical attractiveness (good looking fundraisers generated 42% vs. 23%) 2. Shared group membership (“I’m a student too” doubles donations from students) We are more likely to “go along to get along” when the person attempting to influence us is appealing due to: 1. Physical attractiveness (good looking fundraisers generated 42% vs. 23%) 2. Shared group membership (“I’m a student too” doubles donations from students)

48 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Factors Affecting Social Approval Public Observability When their own responses will be observed by other group members, people agreed more with group- judgments of: Whether a color patch is green or blue Whether a cup of coffee is tasty How to handle racist propaganda When their own responses will be observed by other group members, people agreed more with group- judgments of: Whether a color patch is green or blue Whether a cup of coffee is tasty How to handle racist propaganda

49 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Focus on Application: Doing Wrong by Trying to Do Right When health educators focus attention on a problem (such as drug use or smoking), they may inadvertently focus attention on the prevalence of that problem. This may suggest that the problem behavior is common (Wow! Everybody’s using drugs). It is more effective to emphasize that the unwanted behavior is uncommon. When health educators focus attention on a problem (such as drug use or smoking), they may inadvertently focus attention on the prevalence of that problem. This may suggest that the problem behavior is common (Wow! Everybody’s using drugs). It is more effective to emphasize that the unwanted behavior is uncommon.

50 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Being Consistent With Commitments Personal commitments tie an individual’s identity (or self-image) to a position or course of action, making it more likely that he or she will follow through.

51 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Commitment-Initiating Tactics The Foot-in-the-Door Technique The Low-Ball Technique The Bait and Switch Technique Labeling Technique The Foot-in-the-Door Technique The Low-Ball Technique The Bait and Switch Technique Labeling Technique

52 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon The Foot-in-the-Door Technique Compliance with the initial request changes one’s self-image to be consistent with that first favor. It would be inconsistent with this image to refuse the second request. Compliance with the initial request changes one’s self-image to be consistent with that first favor. It would be inconsistent with this image to refuse the second request.

53 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEPSECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC

54 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Gain Target’s Compliance With a Small Request Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEP SECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC example: “Would you sign a petition to help feed starving ex- CEOs of dot.coms?”

55 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Gain Target’s Compliance With a Small Request Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEP SECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC Would you sign a petition to help feed starving ex- CEOs of dot.coms? Make A Related, Larger Request “Would you work for 2 wks. in the CEO soup kitchen?”

56 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon The Low-Ball Technique After making an active choice for something, people take “mental possession” of it and it becomes part of their self-concept. It is often easier to continue with the commitment than to change the self- concept. After making an active choice for something, people take “mental possession” of it and it becomes part of their self-concept. It is often easier to continue with the commitment than to change the self- concept.

57 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Get an Agreement to a Specific Arrangement Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEP SECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC Get Customer to Agree to Buy a New Car for $15,000

58 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Get an Agreement to a Specific Arrangement Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEPSECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC Get Customer to Agree to Buy a New Car for $15,000 SECOND STEP Change The Terms of The Arrangement “Oh, you wanted tires and seats? Then that’ll be $15,999.”

59 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon The Bait and Switch Technique The Bait and Switch gets people to accept a deal they would have dismissed if it had been offered first. It works by getting people to make a commitment to a general course of action (e.g., buying a new stereo). The Bait and Switch gets people to accept a deal they would have dismissed if it had been offered first. It works by getting people to make a commitment to a general course of action (e.g., buying a new stereo).

60 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Advertise a Low Price on a New Stereo Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEP SECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC Spur The Target to Take a Course of Action

61 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Advertise a Low Price on a New Stereo Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEPSECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC Spur The Target to Take a Course of Action SECOND STEP “That stereo is no longer available, but just $99 more buys this beauty!” Describe Course as Unwise, Suggest Alternative

62 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Labeling Technique The label (e.g. “you are generous”) activates a favorable self-image. This motivates the person to act in ways that are consistent with that self-image (to be generous). The label (e.g. “you are generous”) activates a favorable self-image. This motivates the person to act in ways that are consistent with that self-image (to be generous).

63 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon “You Are A Very Generous Person!” Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEP SECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC Assign The Target a Trait Label

64 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon “You Are A Very Generous Person!” Foot-in- the-Door FIRST STEPSECOND STEP Low-Ball Bait and Switch Labeling TACTIC Assign The Target a Trait Label SECOND STEP “Say, can you contribute to the college teachers fund?” Seek Compliance With a Label- Consistent Request

65 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Harnessing Existing Commitments Certain commitments reside within a person in the form of existing values. Marketers who create links between our personal values and their products will likely have us as long-term customers. Cults often connect their messages to prevalent personal values (examples: peace, justice, spiritual growth). Certain commitments reside within a person in the form of existing values. Marketers who create links between our personal values and their products will likely have us as long-term customers. Cults often connect their messages to prevalent personal values (examples: peace, justice, spiritual growth).

66 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Active and Public Commitments One way people come to perceive and define themselves is through an examination of their actions. Like active commitments, public commitments—especially when freely chosen—lead to consistent future behavior because they alter self-image. One way people come to perceive and define themselves is through an examination of their actions. Like active commitments, public commitments—especially when freely chosen—lead to consistent future behavior because they alter self-image.

67 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Active and Public Commitments Students in one experiment were asked to judge lines in an Asch-type experiment. Before hearing group members make erroneous judgments, Some privately wrote down their judgments (Active Commitment Only) Others wrote their judgments and gave them to the experimenter (Active plus Public Commitment). Students in one experiment were asked to judge lines in an Asch-type experiment. Before hearing group members make erroneous judgments, Some privately wrote down their judgments (Active Commitment Only) Others wrote their judgments and gave them to the experimenter (Active plus Public Commitment).

68 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon % 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% COMMITMENT Public Commitments esearch esearch Neither Active nor public % Sticking w. Orig. Judgment Deutsch & Gerard, 1955 Of those who made NO COMMITMENT to their original decisions, only about half stuck with them in the face of group pressure

69 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon % 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% COMMITMENT Public Commitments esearch esearch Neither Active nor public Active Only % Sticking w. Orig. Judgment Making a PRIVATE COMMITMENT increased the likelihood of sticking to the original correct judgment Deutsch & Gerard, 1955

70 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon % 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% COMMITMENT Public Commitments esearch esearch Active Only Active Plus Public % Sticking w. Orig. Judgment Making the commitment PUBLIC further increased the likelihood of resisting group pressure Neither Active nor public Deutsch & Gerard, 1955

71 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Men, Women, and Public Conformity Men in some studies have conformed less when they knew their judgments would be made public (e.g., Eagly, Wood, & Fishbaugh, 1981). Why? Men in some studies have conformed less when they knew their judgments would be made public (e.g., Eagly, Wood, & Fishbaugh, 1981). Why?

72 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Men, Women, and Public Conformity Roy Baumeister and Kristin Sommer (1997) suggest: Both sexes are motivated to be accepted by their groups But men aim to be accepted by demonstrating independent, leadership qualities. Roy Baumeister and Kristin Sommer (1997) suggest: Both sexes are motivated to be accepted by their groups But men aim to be accepted by demonstrating independent, leadership qualities.

73 Copyright © Allyn and Bacon Changing Behavior Through Use of the “Big Lie” The Goebbel’s technique – a policy of persons in authority repeating a falsehood over and over until it is taken to be the truth. Also known as argumentum ad nauseam “We know there are weapons of mass destruction”. The Goebbel’s technique – a policy of persons in authority repeating a falsehood over and over until it is taken to be the truth. Also known as argumentum ad nauseam “We know there are weapons of mass destruction”.


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