Presentation on theme: "Adam O’Toole, Hanna Silvennoinen*, and Daniel P. Rasse"— Presentation transcript:
1 Greenhouse gas emissions and agronomic effects from biochar applications at field scale in Norway Adam O’Toole, Hanna Silvennoinen*, and Daniel P. Rasse*presenting authorBioforsk Soil and Environment, Ås, Norway.
2 IntroductionBiochar-C stability? Is linked to pyrolysis temp. at which biochar is produced1, however limited field data showing the extent of biochar-C mineralization and effects on native SOM mineralization in ag. soils (eg. Does Priming of SOM occur?)GHG impact?: Previous studies2 have shown reductions of N2O in biochar amended fields but no field data show the duration of this effect.Agronomy? Meta analyses3 estimate ~10% average yield increases in biochar studies, but little published data avail. for Nordic countries1Mašek et al. 2011, Fuel. 103: Taghizadeh-Toosi, et al. (2011). JEQ 40(2); Zhang et al.(2012)Fld Crps Res. 127, Jefferey et al Ag. Eco. Env. 144:
3 Objectives of experiments Experiment 1: To estimate the stability of biochar-C under field conditions and BC impact on GHG emissions Experiment 2: Assess agronomic impacts from biochar application as part of a Northern European ring trial.
4 Methods for assessing Biochar C stability Measuring the δ13C signature and CO2 efflux of a C3 soil after additons of Miscanthus (C4 plant) derived biocharC4 plants: ~ -15‰δ13CMiscanthusOatsC3 SOM: ~ -30‰
5 Methods: Experiment 1GHG measurement: Closed static chambers, Infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for CO2 efflux (2 mins per chamber), Piccaro G1101-i for δ13C measurementsKeeling plot method used to isolate soil respired CO2 in chamber measurements (3, 8, 1440 min).Larger closed chambers for N2O, vial measurements taken at 0,15,30, 45 min. and measured via GC
6 Biochar and Soil description Miscanthus giganteus (C4 plant) feedstockProduced by Pyreg Gmbh (Germany) Pyroysis temperature °CFixed C = 70% VM= 7% Ash= 23%pH: 10BET: 349 m2 g-1Soil: Inceptisol, Sandy Clay Loam, TOC: 2.5 %
7 Field trials in Norway – 2010-13 Biochar inverse ploughed in the fall of New application in 2012 (mini plots for N2O studyCrops – 2011 Oats Barley OatsFertilizer: Ammonium Nitrate (NPK , 550 kg ha-1)Ås(University of Life Sciences, field station)
8 Experimental Design16 plots (6 x 4 m) / 4 plots (1.5 x 1.5 m miniplots)5 treatments x 4 repsRandomized block designControl – no amendmentsStraw 8t C ha-1 (2010)Biochar 8 t C ha-1 (2010)Biochar 25 t C ha-1 (2010)5. Biochar 25 t C ha-1 (New application 2012 for N2O trial) (mini plots)
12 Contribution to CO2 flux Cumulative C loss –C4 plant-C related lossCO2-C lossContribution to CO2C loss from straw and biocharg m-2%Control461-Straw t C ha-146776169.5%Biochar t C ha-1439510.6%Biochar t C daa-1472920.4%~x 20Table 1. Degradation of C4 products and contribution to Soil-C flux ( )C4 related lossCO2-C lossamountContribution to CO2 fluxloss of C4 inputsg m-2%Control461-Miscanthus 8 t C ha-146776169.5%Biochar 8 t C ha-1439510.6%Biochar 25 t C ha-1472920.4%
13 Straw and Biochar-C loss after Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7) oxidation (Budai et al. In prep.) ~ °C threshold for inc. stabilityField site charStraw Bc 250°C BC 300°C BC 500°C Bc 700°C
16 BiocharClimate Saving Soils project (Interreg IV North sea programme)
17 Project objective:“To develop, implement and disseminate the biochar-strategy in the North Sea Region (NSR) for climate change adaptation and climate change mitigation by increasing soil quality and stability with soil biochar amendments.”7 countries around the North Sea:UK, NO, SE, DK, DE, NL, BEPeriod
18 Biochar characteristics Field trial objective:“To test the effect of one wood based biochar on soil quality and crop growth according to a standard protocol, across different soil types and climates of the North Sea Region.”Feedstock: mix of Picea abies - Abies alba - Pinus sylvestris -Fagus sylvatica - Quercus roburPyrolysis temperature: °CDose: 20t/haBiochar characteristicsBiochar characteristics
19 Biochar characteristics Transnational field trialsBiochar application date in Norway: spring 2012Treatments: 1) biochar, 2) controlReplicates: 4Crop2012: spring barley (DE: winter wheat)2013: free crop choiceBiochar characteristics
23 Bulk density Experiment 1 Control 1.30 g cm3 ± 0.04 Biochar 8 t g cm3 ± 0.11Straw 8 t g cm3 ± 0.07Biochar 25 t g cm3 ± 0.05Experiment 2Biochar g cm3 ± 0.05Control g cm3 ± 0.09
24 Conclusion Biochar appeared to be Stabil and did not prime native C Plant yields similar over all treatments in two wet seasons in a clay loam Norwegian soilReductions in bulk density and increases in worm populations could have a benefits for root growth, but needs more study
25 Thank you for your attention AcknowledgementsRaphael FauchesMonique Carnol, University of LiegeSvend Pung – SKP, UMBToril Trædal (UMB)Christophe Moni, Farshad Tamiand Robert BarneveldFunding: Matprogrammet, Norwegian ResearchCouncil. Interreg IV NSR program and SLFOur website:
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