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Greenhouse gas emissions and agronomic effects from biochar applications at field scale in Norway Adam O’Toole, Hanna Silvennoinen*, and Daniel P. Rasse.

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Presentation on theme: "Greenhouse gas emissions and agronomic effects from biochar applications at field scale in Norway Adam O’Toole, Hanna Silvennoinen*, and Daniel P. Rasse."— Presentation transcript:

1 Greenhouse gas emissions and agronomic effects from biochar applications at field scale in Norway Adam O’Toole, Hanna Silvennoinen*, and Daniel P. Rasse * presenting author Bioforsk Soil and Environment, Ås, Norway.

2 Introduction Biochar-C stability? Is linked to pyrolysis temp. at which biochar is produced 1, however limited field data showing the extent of biochar-C mineralization and effects on native SOM mineralization in ag. soils (eg. Does Priming of SOM occur?) GHG impact?: Previous studies 2 have shown reductions of N 2 O in biochar amended fields but no field data show the duration of this effect. Agronomy? Meta analyses 3 estimate ~10% average yield increases in biochar studies, but little published data avail. for Nordic countries 1 Mašek et al. 2011, Fuel. 103: Taghizadeh-Toosi, et al. (2011). JEQ 40(2); Zhang et al.(2012)Fld Crps Res. 127, Jefferey et al Ag. Eco. Env. 144:

3 Experiment 1: To estimate the stability of biochar-C under field conditions and BC impact on GHG emissions Experiment 2: Assess agronomic impacts from biochar application as part of a Northern European ring trial. Objectives of experiments

4 Methods for assessing Biochar C stability Measuring the δ 13 C signature and CO 2 efflux of a C3 soil after additons of Miscanthus (C4 plant) derived biochar C4 plants: ~ -15‰ C3 SOM: ~ -30‰ Oats Miscanthus δ 13 C

5 Methods: Experiment 1 GHG measurement: Closed static chambers, Infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) for CO 2 efflux (2 mins per chamber), Piccaro G1101-i for δ 13 C measurements Keeling plot method used to isolate soil respired CO 2 in chamber measurements (3, 8, 1440 min). Larger closed chambers for N 2 O, vial measurements taken at 0,15,30, 45 min. and measured via GC

6 Biochar and Soil description Miscanthus giganteus (C4 plant) feedstock Produced by Pyreg Gmbh (Germany) Pyroysis temperature °C Fixed C = 70% VM= 7% Ash= 23% pH: 10 BET: 349 m 2 g -1 Soil: Inceptisol, Sandy Clay Loam, TOC: 2.5 %

7 Field trials in Norway – Ås (University of Life Sciences, field station) Biochar inverse ploughed in the fall of New application in 2012 (mini plots for N 2 O study Crops – 2011 Oats 2012 Barley 2013 Oats Fertilizer: Ammonium Nitrate (NPK , 550 kg ha -1)

8 Experimental Design 16 plots (6 x 4 m) / 4 plots (1.5 x 1.5 m miniplots) 5 treatments x 4 reps Randomized block design 1.Control – no amendments 2.Straw 8t C ha -1 (2010) 3.Biochar 8 t C ha -1 (2010) 4.Biochar 25 t C ha -1 (2010) 5. Biochar 25 t C ha-1 (New application 2012 for N 2 O trial) (mini plots)

9 Air temp and precipitation (Apr-Nov 2012)

10 Results – Soil respiration No significant differences between treatments

11

12 Cumulative C loss – Table 1. Degradation of C4 products and contribution to Soil-C flux ( ) C4 related loss CO 2 - C loss amount Contribution to CO 2 flux loss of C4 inputs g m -2 % Control Miscanthus 8 t C ha % Biochar 8 t C ha % Biochar 25 t C ha % C4 plant-C related loss CO 2 -C loss Contribution to CO 2 C loss from straw and biochar g m -2 % Control Straw 8 t C ha % Biochar 8 t C ha % Biochar 25 t C daa % ~x 20

13 Straw and Biochar-C loss after Potassium Dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ) oxidation (Budai et al. In prep.) Straw Bc 250 °C BC 300 °C BC 500°C Bc 700°C Field site char ~ °C threshold for inc. stability

14 fertilization harvest N 2 O flux 2012

15 Cumulative N 2 O utslipp growing season

16 BiocharClimate Saving Soils project (Interreg IV North sea programme)

17 17 “To develop, implement and disseminate the biochar-strategy in the North Sea Region (NSR) for climate change adaptation and climate change mitigation by increasing soil quality and stability with soil biochar amendments.” 7 countries around the North Sea: UK, NO, SE, DK, DE, NL, BE Period Project objective:

18 18 Field trial objective: “To test the effect of one wood based biochar on soil quality and crop growth according to a standard protocol, across different soil types and climates of the North Sea Region.” Feedstock: mix of Picea abies - Abies alba - Pinus sylvestris -Fagus sylvatica - Quercus robur Pyrolysis temperature: °C Dose: 20t/ha Biochar characteristics

19 19 Biochar characteristics Biochar application date in Norway: spring 2012 Treatments: 1) biochar, 2) control Replicates: 4 Crop 2012: spring barley (DE: winter wheat) 2013: free crop choice Transnational field trials

20 Grain yield (Barley)

21 Straw yield (Barley) 2012

22 Earthworm count in field

23 Bulk density Experiment 1 Control 1.30 g cm 3 ± 0.04 Biochar 8 t 1.16 g cm 3 ± 0.11 Straw 8 t 1.19 g cm 3 ± 0.07 Biochar 25 t 1.22 g cm 3 ± 0.05 Experiment 2 Biochar 1.06 g cm 3 ± 0.05 Control 1.17 g cm 3 ± 0.09

24 Conclusion Biochar appeared to be Stabil and did not prime native C Plant yields similar over all treatments in two wet seasons in a clay loam Norwegian soil Reductions in bulk density and increases in worm populations could have a benefits for root growth, but needs more study

25 Thank you for your attention Our website: Acknowledgements -Raphael Fauches -Monique Carnol, University of Liege -Svend Pung – SKP, UMB -Toril Trædal (UMB) -Christophe Moni, Farshad Tami and Robert Barneveld Funding: Matprogrammet, Norwegian Research Council. Interreg IV NSR program and SLF


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