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1 BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNIQUE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION One seventh of the total energy is from biomass One seventh.

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Presentation on theme: "1 BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNIQUE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION One seventh of the total energy is from biomass One seventh."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 BIOMASS GASIFICATION TECHNIQUE FOR ELECTRICAL POWER GENERATION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION One seventh of the total energy is from biomass One seventh of the total energy is from biomass 1.5 billion of the world population has biomass as main energy resource 1.5 billion of the world population has biomass as main energy resource Biomass can be transferred to useful thermal, electrical energy and fuel as power by means of different techniques Biomass can be transferred to useful thermal, electrical energy and fuel as power by means of different techniques

2 Problem/ opportunity, Goal, adjectives to achieve the goal.Problem/ Opportunity -Villages in north of Iraq are using kerosene based lighting system, diesel driven water pumps for irrigation and drinking water.Goal of the project -Using biomass gasification technique to generate electricity for lighting, irrigation and drinking water.. Adjectives to achieve the goal -Enough areas to be allocated for planting forest necessary to produce feedstocks for the plant -Enough resources to be assigned to build the plant within reasonable limited time -Federal government of Kurdistan builds the plant on non profit base

3 The model adopted in this project A Village of 50 households are taken as a model A Village of 50 households are taken as a model -Main source of their income depends on cultivation of different seasonal crops -Main source of their income depends on cultivation of different seasonal crops Each household is of 7 persons as average Each household is of 7 persons as average Main their needs is electricity for lighting, irrigation and drinking water Main their needs is electricity for lighting, irrigation and drinking water

4 Calculation of lighting load Each household assumed to have 2 living rooms 4.5x4m and a kitchen of 3x4 m Each household assumed to have 2 living rooms 4.5x4m and a kitchen of 3x4 m 1 lamp to be installed for each room and one lamp for external lighting. The total is 4 lamp 1 lamp to be installed for each room and one lamp for external lighting. The total is 4 lamp Mark 4 lamps are used Mark 4 lamps are used All lamps working 4 hrs daily. All lamps working 4 hrs daily. There is a centralized power generation system There is a centralized power generation system Each house hold is supplied with one 12V SLA batteries to drive lighting system with power transfer efficiency of 0.85 Each house hold is supplied with one 12V SLA batteries to drive lighting system with power transfer efficiency of 0.85

5 Calculation of lighting load continue Total power consumed by each household= 1.2 ?? *4 = 4.8 watt Total power consumed by each household= 1.2 ?? *4 = 4.8 watt Total power consumed by the village= 50X 4.8 = 240 watt Total power consumed by the village= 50X 4.8 = 240 watt Assume lighting load for other facilities such as schools, health care, police centre = 240 watt. Assume lighting load for other facilities such as schools, health care, police centre = 240 watt. Assume 5% ?? losses then the total lighting load of the village = 420 w ???? Assume 5% ?? losses then the total lighting load of the village = 420 w ????

6 Other loads Assume rating of induction motor for irrigation and drink water pump to be Assume rating of induction motor for irrigation and drink water pump to be 20 hp = kw 20 hp = kw Assume milling machine motor( for milling the crops) rating is 10 hp = 7.46 kw Assume milling machine motor( for milling the crops) rating is 10 hp = 7.46 kw Total load = = 22.8 kw Total load = = 22.8 kw Assume 10% future load increasing Assume 10% future load increasing Hence the total load will be 22 kw ?? which is the capacity of the gasifier system Hence the total load will be 22 kw ?? which is the capacity of the gasifier system

7 Energy stored requirements( Battery) Total current consumed by each household for lighting Total current consumed by each household for lighting = (1.2W/12V) X 4 = 0.4 A = (1.2W/12V) X 4 = 0.4 A Take the capacity of the battery as 10 times the load Ah, then C = 10(0.4A x 1h) = 4 Ah Take the capacity of the battery as 10 times the load Ah, then C = 10(0.4A x 1h) = 4 Ah We select SLA battery of 7Ah We select SLA battery of 7Ah Energy in this battery is 13.2V x 7Ah = 92.4 Wh Energy in this battery is 13.2V x 7Ah = 92.4 Wh

8 Charging station requirements E (discharging)= 4 x [4h x1.2W/0.85] = 22.5 Wh E (discharging)= 4 x [4h x1.2W/0.85] = 22.5 Wh E (recharging)= 22.5/0.85 = 26.4 Wh E (recharging)= 22.5/0.85 = 26.4 Wh If the batteries are taken to the charging station every other day, i.e. half the batteries every day If the batteries are taken to the charging station every other day, i.e. half the batteries every day Hence the total recharging energy of the charging station= 26.4 x 25 = Wh Hence the total recharging energy of the charging station= 26.4 x 25 = Wh

9 Calculation of the required biomass for this project Generated energy per year = 20 ?? x 6 ?? x 365 = 43800Kwh Generated energy per year = 20 ?? x 6 ?? x 365 = 43800Kwh Biomass required to generate one Kwh = 1 Kg on average Biomass required to generate one Kwh = 1 Kg on average Hence the total mass of required biomass is Kg, say 45 ton Hence the total mass of required biomass is Kg, say 45 ton If we consider a well managed plantation, each hectare will produce 15 tons biomass / year, so we need about 3 hectare If we consider a well managed plantation, each hectare will produce 15 tons biomass / year, so we need about 3 hectare Taking factor of sharing the land with agricultural crops, then the total hectare needed will be 3 X 5 = 11 Taking factor of sharing the land with agricultural crops, then the total hectare needed will be 3 X 5 = 11

10 Biopower technologies Direct firing Direct firing Co-firing Co-firing Gasification Gasification Pyrolysis Pyrolysis Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Most biopower plants use direct firing Most biopower plants use direct firing Gasification uses high temperatures and an oxygen- starved environment to convert biomass into synthesis Gasification uses high temperatures and an oxygen- starved environment to convert biomass into synthesis

11 Gasification fuels and selection of right gasifier for each fuel Gasification fuels include: charcoal, wood and waste woods as well as agricultural residues Gasification fuels include: charcoal, wood and waste woods as well as agricultural residues Most important fuel properties Most important fuel properties -Energy content -Moisture matter -Ash content and ash chemical composition - Reactivity - Charring density -N.B Before choosing a gasifier, it is important to ensure that the fuel meets the requirements of the gasifier -The downdraught gasifier is our choice

12 Types of biomass gasification process Large scale application (500 Kw and above) Large scale application (500 Kw and above) Medium scale application( Kw) Medium scale application( Kw) Small scale applications(7 - 30Kw) Small scale applications(7 - 30Kw) Micro scale application(1 - 30Kw) Micro scale application(1 - 30Kw)

13 Types of Gasifiers Updraught or counter current gasifier Updraught or counter current gasifier

14 Cont. Types of Gasifiers Downdraught gasifier Downdraught gasifier

15 Cont- Types of Gasifiers Cross- draught gasifier Cross- draught gasifier Fluidized bed gasifier Fluidized bed gasifier Other types of gasifiers Other types of gasifiers

16 Processes occurring in down- draught gasifier Process in drying zone Process in drying zone Process in pyrolysis zone Process in pyrolysis zone process in oxidation zone process in oxidation zone Process in reduction zone Process in reduction zone

17 Cleaning dust from the gas Cleaning dust from the gas Gas cooling Gas cooling

18 Economical analysis The expected generator life assumed to 20 years The expected generator life assumed to 20 years Discounting rate 10% Discounting rate 10% Diesel engine parts replacement after 8 years cost to 10% and 20% after 16 years Diesel engine parts replacement after 8 years cost to 10% and 20% after 16 years Gasifier and other auxiliary systems life time is 10 years Gasifier and other auxiliary systems life time is 10 years Inflation rate is considered 0% Inflation rate is considered 0% The SLA batteries to be replaced each 4 years The SLA batteries to be replaced each 4 years Generator lead acid battery to be replaced each 4 years Generator lead acid battery to be replaced each 4 years The feedstock cost is considered $30/ month The feedstock cost is considered $30/ month Total cost is $ Total cost is $ Total Kwh = during 20 years Total Kwh = during 20 years Cost of each kwh= $0.05 Cost of each kwh= $0.05 If using kerosene for lighting, each household pay $ 180 / year If using kerosene for lighting, each household pay $ 180 / year If using solid state lighting, each household pay If using solid state lighting, each household pay = 19.2 ?? x 365 x ?? = $0.433 = 19.2 ?? x 365 x ?? = $0.433 Percentage is 0.24%, is not amazing! Percentage is 0.24%, is not amazing!

19 Biomass environmental impacts Reducing greenhouse gas emission Reducing greenhouse gas emission Energy crops restore and reestablish the forest cover Energy crops restore and reestablish the forest cover The ash by- products will be used as a fertilizer thus reducing the dependence on nitrogen fertilizers The ash by- products will be used as a fertilizer thus reducing the dependence on nitrogen fertilizers Enriches the soil and organic matter to avoid the soil erosion Enriches the soil and organic matter to avoid the soil erosion Negative impacts: Negative impacts: The emission of CO and other dangerous gases has negative impact on the environment, so this needs appropriate managing plan The emission of CO and other dangerous gases has negative impact on the environment, so this needs appropriate managing plan Without proper plan of planting and harvesting, the de- frosting ?? of the lands will result Without proper plan of planting and harvesting, the de- frosting ?? of the lands will result

20 Project social impacts Jobs will be created Jobs will be created Local people will be encouraged to plant new types of feedstocks and they will get extra income. Local people will be encouraged to plant new types of feedstocks and they will get extra income. The area will be lighted up and new business will be created The area will be lighted up and new business will be created Education level, health care and security will be improved. Education level, health care and security will be improved. The dependence on conventional and fossil energy will be reduced so that the cost of the energy as a whole will be reduced The dependence on conventional and fossil energy will be reduced so that the cost of the energy as a whole will be reduced

21 General recommendations Fast growing trees should be managed Fast growing trees should be managed The older branches to be harvested in cycle of 2-6 month cycle The older branches to be harvested in cycle of 2-6 month cycle The main stem is kept intact and hence the forest covers The main stem is kept intact and hence the forest covers

22 Questions? Questions?


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