2Stresses on the Body During Spaceflight Normal SpaceflightG-forces during blastoffMicrogravityRadiationApollo 13 AccidentColdStressLow air qualityDehydrationFatigue
3The Hazards of the Apollo 13 While in Outer Space Jim Lovell was at risk hypothermia. This was because there was not enough heat in his body. So the blood vessels constricted in order to keep the warm blood close to the vital organs.Because of heat loss to the extremities, Jim Lovell was at risk of frostbite, where ice crystals form on the walls of the blood vessels.
4The Effects of Take Off and Landing on the Body During both take off from and landing back on earth the body experiences higher levels of G-force than it is used to. During landing the amount of G force is much less than take off but it stays constantly at level. Because of this astronauts that just landed on earth experience lack of blood flow to the head when standing.During take off astronauts experience lack of blood flow to the brain. This would then leads to brain problem such as impaired judgment and blackouts. But because of a g suit which is a suit that squeezes the legs and prevents lack of blood flow to the brain. Constant training also astronauts can deal with the G force. Taking off in a lying position help deal with the G force as well because the pressure is evenly distributed.
5The Effects of Severe Dehydration Dehydration is caused by lack of water in body. Jim Lovell had a limited water supply available so water had to rationed and this led to serious health problems.Dehydration starts.Day 1
6The Effects of Cosmic Radiation Exposure Stage 2Stage 3All astronauts face the cosmic radiation caused by cosmic rays that press against the earth’s atmosphere and Jim Lovell and his crew were no exception. cosmic radiations can mutate and kill cells. cosmic Radiation in space causes only minor health problems if exposure is short. But prolonged exposure can cause much more serious health problems because cosmic radiation can quickly spread to other cells.
7The Effects of Zero Gravity on Muscle Deterioration Normal muscle structureDeteriorated muscle structureAs with all astronauts Jim Lovell and his crew suffered from muscle deterioration. This is because your muscles don’t have to work against gravity. But the Apollo 13's crew reduced its effect by exercise.
8The Effects of StressWhen stressed the nervous system triggers the rest of the body's response to stress by using various hormones.During their journey the astronauts of the Apollo 13 were very stressed because of all the pressure on them. They were also stressed because their lives were at risk. This then led to some health problems.Stress can also cause muscles tense up.Stress can cause rapid breathing.Short term stress causes and increase in heart rate and also causes blood vessels to dilate.Reproductive systemThe body produces hormones that make the liver produce glucose which give you energy.In the bodies of men when they are stressed produce a hormone that effects how the reproductive system functions.Stress makes you tend to eat more and you might experience nausea and pain in the stomach. Stress also can induce diarrhea.
9Air Quality on Apollo 13The lunar module was a section of the ship designed to provide a livable environment for 2 astronauts for only 2 days. However, to conserve electrical power, all 3 astronauts crowded in to the lunar module for 5 days. This lead to high carbon dioxide levels because the carbon dioxide scrubbers or filters filled with Lithium Hydroxide were more rapidly used up. Fresh cartridges from the command module were available, but they were not the same shape as those used in the lunar module.Eventually the carbon dioxide levels climbed to a point where it was starting to become toxic. Too much CO2 in breathed air changes blood chemistry which can cause impaired judgment, confusion, or unconsciousness.
10The Effects of FatigueJim Lovell and his crew were tired from costantly staying awake at night. This led to fatigue.
12Making a Square Peg Work in a Round Hole = filtered air= unfiltered air
13GlossaryCardiovascular system: A body system consisting of blood, blood vessels and the heart.Command module: The Main Cabin of the Space Craft.Cosmic radiation: A type of radiation caused by cosmic rays.Cosmic rays: A type of high energy particles that press against the earths atmosphere.Dehydration: A condition caused by lack of water.Hypothermia: A condition caused by low body temperature.Endocrine system: A body system that consists of small organ that produce hormones/Fatigue: A condition that occurs when you become very tired.
14Gastrointestinal system: A body system whose function is to digest food. G-force: A measurement of force on the body.G-suit: A suit that constricts blood flow to the extremities.Lunar module: Section of the Space Craft Used for Landing on the Moon.Musculoskeletal system: A body system consisting of all skeletal muscles.Nervous system: A body system consisting of all nerves and the brain.Respiratory system: A body system consisting of the all the components involved inhaling.Reproductive system: A body system whose function is to make babies.
15References(2/28/09) (2/28/09)(2/28/09)(2/28/09)Apollo 13- Original Theatrical Trailer