Presentation on theme: "Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute."— Presentation transcript:
Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.www.ift.org In a Food Preparation and Service Setting
The U.S. government has declared the food and agriculture sector to be one of 17 critical national infrastructures vulnerable to intentional attack.
What Type of Harm Could Occur? Intentional delivery of a harmful biological or chemical agent to the food supply system could cause: Physical harm (illness or mortality) Economic disruption Direct Indirect International Political unrest Psychological harm – loss of confidence in food supply
Missouri Restaurant Industry: Over 13,000 locations in the state 2007 projections employment = 273,500 sales = $8.1 billion Each $1 spent in MO restaurants = $1.38 in sales for other industries Each $1 million spent in MO restaurants = 43.7 jobs Will this Effect Missouri?
Case Study: Polonium 210 November 23, 2006 Alexander Litvinenko died of acute radiation poisoning due ingesting a large dose of Polonium 210. 1 st person to die of acute α-particle radiation effects Most likely mixed into tea Highly toxic Difficult to find and identify
Grapes of Wrath A terrorist group claimed to have contaminated Chilean grapes with cyanide. Fruit was removed from U.S. stores, consumers stopped purchasing Chilean fruit. Only 2 grapes were found to have possible contamination. The threat caused $200-300 million in damages.
No Bleu Cheese Please! In 1984, members of an Oregon cult intentionally contaminated restaurant salad bars with Salmonella bacteria. They were attempting to influence an election. 751 individuals became ill, 45 were hospitalized.
Food Defense focuses on security, protecting the food supply from intentional contamination. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org. www.ift.org
Is Food Defense Different than Food Safety? Food Defense focuses on protecting the food supply from intentional contamination. unintentional Food Safety (HACCP) focuses on protecting the food supply from unintentional contamination. It can help with, but is not a substitute for food defense.
Who Might Intentionally Contaminate an Food Service Facility? Disgruntled employee/former employee Contract or temporary employee Members of terrorist or extremist groups Truck driver Affiliate of a competing facility Visitor to facility
Rats! Businessman poisons food of rival noodle shop with Tetramine. Poisoning sickens 400 kills 49 (soldiers and school children) Owner of rival Kindergarten contaminates lunch with Tetramine Poisoning effects 70 kindergarteners and 2 teachers Rival Chinese Businesses use banned rat poison containing Tetramine to harm a competitor’s business
Potential Contaminants Biological Agents: Injure by causing disease, or producing toxin. Chemical Agents: Injure through toxicity to biological systems, or chemical burns to tissue. Radiological Agents: Injure externally with radiation burns and potentially deadly acute radiation sickness. Injure internally by causing damage to internal organs.
Category A: Easily to use, high death rate Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) Clostridium botulinum toxin (Botulism) Category B: Moderately easy to use, moderate illness, low death rate, hard to diagnose E. coli O157:H7 Salmonella spp.(Salmonellosis) Shigella spp.(Dysentery) Not categorized: Naturally occurring, can cause symptoms in humans. Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriosis) Campylobacter jejuni Bacillus anthracis Clostridium botulinum Biological Agents of Concern E. coli Campylobacter jejuni
Chemical Agents Biotoxin (Ricin or Abrin) disrupt protein synthesis Aconitine α-Amanitin Metal (Arsenic) damages blood cells Blood Agent (Cyanide) disrupts oxygen usage. Nerve Agent (Sarin) prevents nerves from controlling muscle contractions
What Makes an Attractive Agent of Intentional Contamination? Long Incubation period Highly effective (Potent, toxic, virulent) History of use (increases future chance of use Available (easily produced in adequate quantity) Low traceability
Following several major food recalls in the US, consumer surveys were conducted. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org. www.ift.org
Consumer Confidence in Food Defense Systems After National Food Recalls Stinson et al., 2008
Who Do Consumers Believe is Responsible for Food Defense? Stinson et al., 2008
Who do Consumers Believe Should Pay for Food Defense? Stinson et al., 2008
Products That Consumers Believe Most Likely to be Intentionally Contaminated Stinson et al., 2008
Defense plans are encouraged but not required for farms and most food establishments. Courtesy of Food Technology magazine, from "Defending the Food Supply," August 2005, Vol. 59, No.8. Food Technology is a publication of the Institute of Food Technologists, www.ift.org.www.ift.org
Facilities Currently Required to Participate in Food Defense All vendors providing food for USDA feeding programs must now be in compliance with the Food Defense System.
Four Steps for Developing a Food Defense Plan Assess the vulnerabilities Write a plan Evaluate the plan Maintain the plan
Assess the vulnerabilities Gather a team of key personnel to make the assessment. Use FDA Guidelines: Guidance for Industry Retail Food Stores and Food Service Establishments: Food Security Preventive Measures Guidance http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/guidance.html. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/guidance.html Think like someone who wants to harm your operation. Look for areas where contamination would be spread through normal operations and areas that are not frequently observed.
Countermeasures are actions taken to shield vulnerable areas, reducing the risk of intentional contamination.
Areas to Consider for Countermeasure Development Procedures Facility Technology Personnel
Workforce Shipping and Receiving Visitors and Customers Marketing Countermeasures for Procedures
Light it Lock it Limit Access Countermeasures for Facility
Write the Plan Develop a countermeasure to defend each vulnerable point identified as high risk. Create a written plan including those countermeasures that are reasonable for the situation. Identify the individual who will implement the countermeasure. Set a timeline to implement the countermeasure.
Should such an event occur a timely and efficient response will be critical to minimizing the damage.
Develop a Written Response Plan Plan for handling of contaminated product Emergency Planning Facility Map Emergency Contact Phone List Visitor Log Supplier/Customer Contacts Employee Emergency Information
Handling of Contaminated Product Hold any food you suspect may be contaminated Retained or recalled product will need to be stored prior to disposal Storage will need to be separate from non contaminated product Prepare a plan for disposal, to be reviewed by FDA and state authorities FDA will witness the execution of the plan
Facility Map Name, address, and phone of owner/proprietor Relationship of the facility to adjacent properties and/or structures. Road access including transportation routes Perimeter boundaries, include fences, and gates (with dimensions)
Facility Map continued Buildings, outbuildings, doors, windows, AC/heating, ventilation Utilities (water, gas, electric, phones) location and shutoff Septic System and drainage areas with direction of flow Web sites such as Google Earth www.earth.google.com
Utility shut offs Owner : Hal Hashslinger 1745 Crepe Circle Cookstown, MO 65xxx H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O Facility Map H2OH2O H2OH2O H2OH2O Exterior door H2OH2O H2OH2O Interior door Exterior door