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Chapter 13 Forces in Fluids

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**13.1 Fluid Pressure Pressure**

Pressure- the result of a force distributed over an area The greater the surface area of an object, the less pressure the object will exert To calculate pressure, divide the force by the area over which the force acts Pressure = Force/Area

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**13.1 Fluid Pressure Pressure = Force/Area Force needs to be in Newtons**

Area needs to be in m2 If these are not the units you are given, you will need to convert The resulting unit for pressure will be a pascal (Pa) SI unit for pressure One pascal = N/m2

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**13.1 Fluid Pressure Sample problem Pressure = Force/Area P =**

F = 2700 N A = 1.5 m2 P = 2700/1.5 = 1800 Pa = 1.8 kPa

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**13.1 Fluid Pressure Pascal The pascal is named for Blaise Pascal**

French scientist 1000 Pa = 1 kPa

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**13.1 Fluid Pressure Sample Problems: P = F/A**

Try these on your own (don’t forget to convert if you do not have the correct units!) 1) P = 314 Pa 2) P = ) P = 2734 kPa F = F = 2070 N F = 804 N A = 4.2 m2 A = 71 m A =

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**13.1 Fluid Pressure Pressure in Fluids**

Fluid- a substance that assumes the shape of its container Liquids and gases are fluids Water pressure increases as depth increases. The pressure in a fluid at any given depth is constant, and is exerted equally in all directions For a fluid that is not moving, depth and the type of fluid are the two factors that determine the pressure the fluid exerts

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**13.1 Fluid Pressure Pressure in Fluids**

If you were to compare the amount of pressure at 25 cm in a bathtub filled with water and in a lake, what do you think your results would be? Tub higher? Lake higher? Same? Same!

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**13.1 Fluid Pressure Air Pressure and the Atmosphere**

The weight of Earth’s atmosphere exerts a pressure of about 101 kPa at sea level Air pressure increases with the depth (altitude) of the atmosphere Air pressure decreases as the altitude above sea level increases

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**13.2 Forces and Pressure in Fluids**

Transmitting Pressure in a Fluid Remember: 1) fluids exert pressure equally in all directions at a given depth and 2) the amount of pressure exerted by a fluid depends on the type of fluid and its depth Imagine a 2 L bottle completely filled with water and its cap tightly screwed on. The bottle is sitting upright on a table. Visualize and describe how the pressure forces act against the inside of the bottle.

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**13.2 Forces and Pressure in Fluids**

Pascal’s Principle According to Pascal’s principle, a change in pressure at any point in a fluid is transmitted and unchanged in all directions throughout the fluid

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**13.2 Forces and Pressure in Fluids**

Hydraulic Systems Hydraulics is the science of applying Pascal’s principle Hydraulic System- a device that uses pressurized fluid acting on pistons of different sizes to change a force In a hydraulic lift system, an increased output force is produced because a constant fluid pressure is exerted on the larger area of the output piston Ex: if the large piston has 12 times the area of the small piston, then the output force is 12 times greater than the input force Why? F = P(A)--pressure is the same on each piston, the difference in forces is directly related to the difference in areas

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**13.2 Forces and Pressure in Fluids**

Bernoulli’s Principle Named after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli ( ) According to Bernoulli’s principle, as the speed of a fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases

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**13.2 Forces and Pressure in Fluids**

Bernoulli’s Principle Wings and Lift The air traveling over the top of an airplane wing moves faster than the air below the wing This faster moving air above the wing causes the air pressure above the wing to decrease (a low pressure area) The pressure difference between the top and the bottom of the wing creates an upward force known as lift Lift- upward force

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**13.2 Forces and Pressure in Fluids**

Bernoulli’s Principle Spray Bottles See the diagram on page 397 in your book

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**13.3 Buoyancy Buoyant Force**

Buoyancy- the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object placed in it Buoyancy results in the apparent loss of weight of an object in a fluid Buoyant Force- an upward force acting on an object in a fluid, which acts in the opposite direction of gravity

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**13.3 Buoyancy Archimedes’ Principle**

States that the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object Archimedes was an ancient Greek mathematician who died in 212 BC

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**13.3 Buoyancy Density and Buoyancy Closely related**

If an object is less dense than the fluid it is in, it will float. If the object is more dense than the fluid it is in, it will sink

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**13.3 Buoyancy Density and Buoyancy**

Two forces act on every object in a fluid Weight and Buoyant Force The force of gravity, equal to the object’s weight acts downward on the object The buoyant force, equal to the weight of the volume of displaced fluid, acts upward on the object When the buoyant force is equal to the weight, an object floats or is suspended. When the buoyant force is less than the weight, the object sinks

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**13.3 Buoyancy Density and Buoyancy Suspended**

An object that has the same density as the fluid it is submerged in will be suspended (will float at any level) in the fluid The buoyant force acting on a suspended object exactly equals the object’s weight Submarines and some fish are able to suspend themselves in water-->partly by adjusting their density

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**13.3 Buoyancy Density and Buoyancy Sinking**

An object that has a weight greater than the buoyant force working on it will sink

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**13.3 Buoyancy Density and Buoyancy Floating**

An object that has a weight less than the buoyant force acting on it will float An object that displaces a large amount of fluid, creating a large buoyant force (so that it counteracts its weight) will float Objects will float more easily in dense fluids Ex: you will float better in salt water compared to fresh water

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