3Fluids ALL can flow ALL can take the shape of its container Fluids include liquid and gases.Remember all matter is either: a solid, liquid, or a gasGases are what makes up the air we breath.For Example: Oxygen is a gasParticles move easily past each otherSolids are NOT a fluid because they can NOT flow, can NOT take the shape of its container , and their particles DO NOT move easily past each other
4Pressure The amount of force exerted on a given area The SI Unit for pressure is pascal (symbol, Pa)Fluids exert pressure evenly in all directionsExample:The air you blow into a bubble exerts pressure evenly in all directions. So, the bubble expands in all directions.Pressure = forcearea
5REMEMBER THIS??A force is a push or a pull exerted on an object in order to change the motion of the object.Pressure is a FORCEInertia is NOT a FORCEWeight is a FORCEMass is NOT a FORCEMomentum is NOT a FORCEFriction is a FORCEGravitational Force is a FORCEAir Resistance is a FORCEAcceleration is NOT a FORCE
6Atmospheric pressure Look at figure 3 on page 182 Atmospheric pressure changes as you travel through the atmosphere.The further DOWN through the atmosphere you go, the GREATER the pressure is.Pressure varies depending on depthSea level has the greatest atmospheric pressure in the figure 3For example,As you go from the top of a mountain to sea level, the pressure increases.
7Water Pressure Increases as depth increases A diver feels more pressure the deeper he swims because more water above the diver is being pulled by Earth’s gravitational force AND the atmospheric pressure presses down on the water, so the total pressure on the diver includes water pressure and atmospheric pressureWater exerts more pressure than air, because water is more dense than air.Remember:Density is the amount of matter in a given volume.Density=Mass/Volume D=m/vExample:A diver 10 m underwater would feel twice as much pressure than if he was just standing on the beach’s surface.
8Pressure Difference and Fluid Flow ***Fluids flow from areas of HIGH pressure to LOW pressure***Example:When a fluid flows from “Area A” to “Area B”, that means “Area A” has a HIGHER PRESSURE than “Area B”With tornadoes, the air pressure outside ofthe tornado is higher than the pressureinside the tornado. This pressure differencecauses air to enter into the tornado.
9Now Do: Chapter 7 Section 1 Review in your notebook Do numbers 3-8 in your SNBNo, you do not have to write the questions.
10Answers to Chapter 7 Section 1 3. B- Fluids include liquids and gases4. Particles in the fluid collide with the side of the container. The force of the collisions creates pressure on the container.5. You aren’t crushed by atmospheric pressure because the fluids inside your body exert pressure that works against atmospheric pressure.6. Atmospheric pressure increases as depth increases because at lower levels of the atmosphere, there is more air above that is being pulled down by gravitational force
11Answers Continued7. Examples of fluids flowing from high pressure to low pressure are drinking through a straw, breathing, and squeezing toothpaste from a tube.8. Pressure = force/areaPressure= 2.4 N/0.012 m2Pressure = 200 Pa
12Chapter 7 Section 2 Buoyant Force Students will:Explain the relationship between fluid pressure and buoyant forcePredict whether an object will float or sink in a fluidAnalyze the role of density in an object’s ability to floatExplain how the overall density of an object can be changed
14Buoyant Force Is the upward force that fluids exert on all matter. A liquid exerts a buoyant force on an object that increases as the density of the fluid increases.In a fluid, buoyant forces exists because the pressure is greater at the BOTTOM of an object than the pressure at the topLook at figure 1 on page 186
15Archimedes’ principle The principle that states that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid that the object displaces.ONLY the weight of the displaced fluid determines the buoyant force on an object.The weight of the object DOES NOT affect buoyant force.
16Weight vs. Buoyant force Refer to figure 2 page 187If the weight of the water an object displaces is equal to the weight of the object, the object FLOATSExample: A fish is suspended in the waterIf the weight of the water an object displaces is less than the weight of the object, the object SINKSExample: a rock sinksIf the weight of the water an object displaces is more than to the weight of the object, the object BUOYED UPExample: a duck would be buoyed up after a diveBuoyed up means “pushed up in water”
17Floating, Sinking, and Density A rock has more mass per volume than water has.Mass per unit of volume is densityThe rock sinks because it is more dense than the water is.The duck floats because it is less dense than the water is.Most substances don’t float in air because most substances are denser than air.There are only a FEW substances that are LESS dense than air.Example: Helium is 7 times less dense than air, thus helium is used in balloons to make them “float in air”
18Changing overall density Changing ShapeShips float because of their shape- see fig.5, pg.189Shaping the steel into a hollow form increases the volume occupied be the same mass. The overall density of the ship is reduced.Changing MassBallast tanks are devices used by submarines to control density.Changing VolumeMost fishes have an organ called a swim bladder that allows them to adjust their overall density
19Chapter 7 Section 3 Fluids and Motion Students will:Describe the relationship between pressure and fluid speed.Analyze the roles of lift, thrust, and wing size in flight.Explain Pascal’s principle.Describe drag, and explain how it affects lift.
21Fluid Speed and Pressure Bernoulli’s PrincipleStates that the pressure in a fluid decreases as the fluid’s velocity increasesSo, the faster the fluid’s speed is, the lower the pressure.
22Factors that Affect Flight According to Bernoulli’s principle, the fast-moving air above the wing exerts less pressure than the slow-moving air below the wing.The greater pressure below the wing exerts an upward force (LIFT: the upward force on an airplane wing from air flow)Wing size, speed, and turbulence affect lift!High-performance jets need SMALL wingsGliders need large wingsThe forward force produced by a plane’s engine is called THRUST.THRUST INCREASE LIFT!Jets have a lot of thrust, but gliders have none
23Drag and Motion in Fluids DRAG is the force that opposes or restricts motion in a fluidTURBULENCE is an irregular or unpredictable flow of fluidsAirplanes reduce drag by using wing flaps.Birds reduce drag by adjusting their wing feathers.
24Pascal’s PrincipleAccording to Pascal, changes in water pressure will be transmitted equally through an enclosed fluid.Pascal’s Principle is used by hydraulic devices to move or lift objectsHydraulic devices can multiply forcesWhen breaks are used to stop a car, Pascal’s Principle is in effect.