Presentation on theme: "FOOD BORNE ILLNESSES: CAMPYLOBACTOR INFECTION"— Presentation transcript:
1 FOOD BORNE ILLNESSES: CAMPYLOBACTOR INFECTION Presented by: Ann MugoWalden University,PUBH-8165 ,Environmental HealthInstructor: Raymond Thron.Date: January 31st 2010Welcome,
2 Introduction:Food-borne illnesses are caused by the consumption of foods or drinks that are contaminated with disease causing bacteria.The most commonly recognized food-borne infections are those caused by the Campylobacter , Salmonella and Escherichia coli bacteria.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,(2005).Food-borne Illnesses. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 from-Food-borne illnesses are caused by the consumption of foods or drinks that are contaminated with disease causing microbes. These microbes include parasites ,bacteria , viruses and toxins produced by bacteria that are not in themselves harmful.-According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , the most commonly recognized food-borne infections are those caused by the Campylobacter , Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157: H7 and those caused by a group of viruses called calcivirus or Norwalk like viruses.
3 CampylobacterCampylobacter is a bacteria that causes diarrhea related illness in humans.Commonly affects babies under one year old, teens, and young adultsThe bacteria may be present in our body without causing noticeable symptoms or illness.Food safety and Inspection service. Foodborne Illness and Disease,(2006). Retrieved January 23rd 2010 fromKidshealth(2010).Infections :Campylobacter Infections. Retrieved on January 23rd 2010 fromWorld Health Organization(2010).Campylobacter .Retrieved on January 23rd 2010 from-There are sixteen species and six subspecies of the Campylobacter bacteria. The Campylobacter is mainly spiral-shaped, S-shaped or curved , rod-shaped bacteria. -The subspecies mostly reported to cause human illnesses is C.jejuni. Other include C.coli,C.lardis , and C.upsaliensis which are also primary pathogens but are reported less frequently in cases of human illnesses(World Health Organization,2000).-Campylobacter bacteria is a major cause of diarrhea related illness in humans and are generally regarded as the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis worldwide(World Health Organization,2000).-Campylobacter infects over 2 million people each year, and babies under 1 year old, teens, and young adults are most commonly affected(KidsHealth,2010)-Campylobacter is a gram negative, bacteria which requires reduced oxygen levels (microaerophilic ) and Campylobacter jejuni is the strain associated with most reported human infections, may be present in the body without causing noticeable illness(Food Safety and Inspection Service,2006)
4 Campylobacter Image retrieved from http://www.ars.usda.gov Image retrieved from cdc.govImages of the campylobacter jejuni bacteria as seen under a microscope.
5 Sources and Transmission of Campylobacter Infections Campylobacter bacteria is commonly found in the intestines of wild and domestic animals .People become infected through:Consumption of raw or undercooked meat from infected animals,drinking unpasteurized milk ,drinking contaminated water ,consumption of dairy products made from unpasteurized milk such as cheesedirect contact with infected pets especially kittens and puppies.Domestic animals and birds.Direct contact an infected personKidsHealth,(2010).Infections: Campylobacter Infections . Retrieved January 23rd2010 fromVermont Department of Health(2005).Campylobacter .Retrieved January 23rd 2010 from-Campylobacter organisms can be found everywhere and are commonly found in the intestinal tracts of cats, dogs, poultry, cattle, swine, rodents, monkeys, wild birds, and some humans. The bacteria pass through the body in the feces and cycle through the environment. They are also found in untreated water illness(Food Safety and Inspection Service,2006) . Campylobacter bacteria is commonly found in the intestines of both wild and domestic animals . Human beings become infected by eating raw or undercooked meat from infected animals, drinking unpasteurized milk or contaminated water and through the consumption of dairy products made from unpasteurized milk.-Humans can also become infected through direct contact with infected pets especially kittens and puppies.-Domestic animals and birds such as cattle , sheep, goat, turkeys and chicken may carry the campylobacter bacteria in the stomach and intestines.-The bacteria can be passed from person to person when one comes into contact with fecal matter from an infected person for example when caring for a child or adult in diapers.
6 Illustrations on how Campylobacter infection can be transmitted Changing a baby’s or adult diaper ,handling raw meat and poultry products, drinking contaminated water, handling infected pets and drinking unpasteurized milk are all means by which one can become affected by the campylobacter as illustrated .
7 What are the symptoms of Campylobacter infection: watery or sticky diarrhea which may contain blood,fever ,abdominal pain,tiredness ,nausea ,vomiting ,headaches ,muscle pain.Altekruse , S, Stern ,N.J., Fields,P.I., & Swerdlow,D.L.,(2005). Campylobacter jejuni—An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Retrieved on January 23rd 2010 fromCenters for Disease Prevention and Control,(2008).Campylobacter. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 from-The main symptoms associated with Campylobacter infection include diarrhea which may be watery or sticky and may contain blood and fecal leukocytes also call white cells ,fever , abdominal pain tiredness , nausea , vomiting ,headaches and muscle pain.-Symptoms usually appear one to seven days after ingestion of the bacteria and can last for seven to ten days.-A campylobacter infection diagnosis is derived at from a stool specimen culture.
8 Complications resulting from Campylobacter infection: A campylobacter infection relapse may occur,reactive arthritis ,hemolytic uremic syndrome,meningitis ,recurrent colitis ,cholecystitis,urinary tract infections,Guillain-Barre syndrome,Death.Food and Drug Administration,(2009).Bad Bug Book: Campylobacter Jejuni. Retrieved January 23rd 2009 from-Like other infections, people usually develop some form of immunity to campylobacter after becoming ill the first time. About 25% of the cases usually experience a relapse but are less likely to have symptoms after the first illness(Food and Drug Administration(FDA),2009).-Although rare , Campylobacter infections can result in complications such as reactive arthritis , hemolytic uremic syndrome , meningitis ,recurrent colitis , cholecystitis, urinary tract infections, and very rarely but serious, Guillain-Barre syndrome an unusual type of paralysis.-Death is also rare and primarily occurs in infants, elderly and patients with compromised immune systems from HIV/AIDS , diabetes ,cancer, kidney disease and even pregnant women and their unborn babies.
9 TreatmentMost campylobacter infected people recover without any specific treatment.Seek medical treatment if diarrhea persists or is bloodyDiarrhea can cause dehydration. Drink more fluidsIn severe cases, antibiotics may be prescribed by healthcare providers.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,(2005).Food-borne Illnesses. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 from-According to the CDC,(2005), almost all people infected with the campylobacter recover without any specific treatment.-People should seek medical treatment if one has diarrhea that comes back or continues for more than a week or immediately if there is blood in the stool.-Diarrhea can cause dehydration therefore supportive measures such as drinking extra fluids is a principle therapy.-Depending on the stool specimen culture results, healthcare providers may prescribe antibiotics such as erythromycin in more severe cases.(CDC,2005)
10 Treatment in illustration Drinking plenty of fluids helps replenish lost electrolytes for patients with diarrhea .In cases of patients with severe cases of campylobacter infections, the healthcare provider may prescribe antibiotics.
11 Prevention:Campylobacter can be prevented by reducing the risks from an individual level.Hand washing is basic yet important .Meat should be thoroughly cooked.Avoid consumption of raw milkAvoid drinking contaminated waterPrevent cross-contamination in the kitchenAltekruse , S, Stern ,N.J., Fields,P.I., & Swerdlow,D.L.,(2005). Campylobacter jejuni—An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Retrieved on January 23rd 2010 fromCenters for Disease Prevention and Control,(2008).Campylobacter. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 fromFood and Drug Administration(2009). Bad Bug Book - Campylobacter jejuni. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 from-Food borne illnesses such as campylobacter can be prevented by reducing the risks from an individual level.-Observing universal precautions such as hand washing is basic yet important .Hands should always be washed thoroughly with soap and water before handling food , before and after handling uncooked meat or poultry products, after using the toilet, changing diapers , handling pets , farm or wild animals.-Meat should be cooked thoroughly until it is firm , no longer pink and the juices run clear. All poultry should be cooked to reach a minimum internal temperature of 165degrees Fahrenheit.-Consumption of raw milk should be avoided. Avoid the consumption of cheese made from unpasteurized milk or any unpasteurized dairy products.-Avoid drinking water from streams or other sources that pass through land where animals graze.-Prevent cross-contamination in the kitchen by using separate cutting boards for meat and other foods .Carefully clean all cutting boards, countertops and utensils with soap and hot water after preparing raw meat .
12 Prevention cont…..Fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed if to be eaten raw . Peel them if possible.Frozen food should never be thawed at room temperature.Anyone infected with campylobacter should not work as a food handler until the infection is clear to avoid infecting others.-Never let raw meat and raw poultry products or their juices come into contact with other food ,raw or cooked.-Avoid ice unless sure it is made from a safe water source.-Fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed if to be eaten raw . Peel them if possible.-When in doubt about drinking water safety , boil it or disinfect the water with a reliable ,slow release disinfectant agent usually available at most pharmacies.-Refrigerate leftovers promptly and thoroughly reheat them before consumption. If using a microwave to reheat refrigerated or frozen food , turn and stir the food to ensure the food is and completely evenly cooked.-Freezers should register zero degrees Fahrenheit or below and refrigerators forty degrees Fahrenheit or below.-Frozen food should never be thawed at room temperature. Thaw food in the refrigerator ,in cold water, or in the microwave.-Avoid packing the refrigerator. Cool air must circulate to keep food safe.-Anyone infected with campylobacter should not work as a food handler ,patient care provider , dairy processor, child care provider until the infection is clear to avoid infecting others.
13 Prevention in illustration Prevention of the risk of campylobacter infection includes measures like hand washing, thoroughly cooking meat and poultry products, avoiding cross-contamination by using separate cutting boards for meat and other kinds of food, washing fruits and vegetables before consumption and organizing your refrigerator tp allow for cool air circulation to keep food safe.
14 Professional or Domestic Food Handlers: Prevention should occur at all levels of the food chain.Hygienic conditions during the slaughtering process,Bactericidal treatment,Responsible Food handlersPerko-Mäkelä,P .,Isohanni,P., Katzav,M.,Lund, M., Hänninen,M., & Lyhs,U.,(2009).A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 51:18 doi: /-Prevention measure should be observed at all levels of the food chain, from the farm , to processing, manufacturing , and preparation of the food in both commercial and domestic environments.-Good hygienic practices should be practiced and observed during the slaughtering process to reduce the contamination of the meat by fecal matter.-Bactericidal treatment such as cooking or pasteurization or irradiation is an effective method of eliminating bacteria from contaminated food.-Professional and domestic food handlers should observe hygienic rules of food preparation , all the previously mentioned prevention measures and should be extra vigilant during the preparation of food .-Professional food handlers suffering from diarrhea, fever ,vomiting or any visible infected skin lesions should report to their employer immediately
15 Measures in the United States to Protect the Public: Good sanitary practices on farms.Drinking water standards.Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA).the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA).Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA).Food Safety and Inspection Service United States Department of Agriculture,(n.d).Improving Recalls At The Food Safety And Inspection ServiceEnvironmental Protection Agency,(2009). Public Drinking Water Systems Programs .Retrieved January 23rd 2009 from-If the Food Safety and Inspection Service(FSIS),finds a violation in the provision of the Acts or that the product could cause a potential danger to the public, then it requests the supplying firm to recall the products from the market .-The United States Department of Agriculture recommends good sanitary practices on farms to minimize the opportunity of bacteria to spread among animals and birds.-Through the Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) program, Environmental Protection Agency implements and enforces drinking water standards to protect public health(Environmental Protection Agency,2009).-Food Safety and Inspection Service(FSIS) enforces the Federal Meat Inspection Act (FMIA), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA), and the Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA), which require Federal inspection and regulation of meat, poultry, and egg products prepared for distribution in commerce for use as human food.
16 Sharing the responsibility: Prevention of campylobacter infections should be observed at every food chain including agricultural farms , infected animal disposal to municipal water treatment .
17 What are Public Health Agencies doing to prevent and control Campylobacter ? FoodNetThe United States Department of AgricultureThe FDA’s Food Code for Restaurants ModelWorld HealthCenters for Disease Prevention and Control,(2008).Campylobacter. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 fromFood and Drug Administration(2009). Bad Bug Book - Campylobacter jejuni. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 fromWorld Health Organization(2010).Campylobacter .Retrieved on January 23rd 2010 from-In 1982,CDC,introduced a program called FoodNet that monitors the incidence and trends of human campylobacter infections over time and conducts studies to identify risk factors for infection.-The United States Department of Agriculture conducts research on how to prevent the infection in chicken.-The FDA has produced a Model Food Code for Restaurants which decreases the risk of campylobacter infection by adherence to the rules.-World Health Organization has a brochure titled A Guide on Safe Food for Travelers provides travelers (especially when travelling abroad) some practical advice for on food safety tips.
18 Conclusion Food borne illnesses continue to occur in the world. Community education results to population empowermentIt is everyone’s responsibility to prevent and control campylobacter and other food borne illnesses.Centers for Disease Prevention and Control,(2008).Campylobacter. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 from-Food borne illnesses continue to occur in the United States and the world in general due to little or no knowledge on the causes ,prevention and control of this infections.-According to CDC , in the Unites States , an estimated 2.1 to 2.4 cases of campylobacter infection occur each year and about 124 people die each year from this infection. Many cases go unreported or undiagnosed.-Educating individuals ,groups and communities on prevention measures and safe food handling may reduce the incidence and prevalence of food borne illnesses.-Although there are Public Health agencies and Governmental bodies that implement and enforce standards aimed at reducing food borne infections, everyone should be responsible right from our own homes. Concerted efforts from everyone will results in positive outcomes in the long run and therefore a reduction in campylobacter and other food borne illnesses.
19 Resources http://www.nlm.nih.gov/ For more information on Campylobacter infection , visit the following websites:
20 QUESTIONS?Feel free to ask a question(s) or add a comment on your thoughts on Campylobacter infectionThank-you.
21 REFERENCES:Altekruse , S, Stern ,N.J., Fields,P.I., & Swerdlow,D.L.,(2005). Campylobacter jejuni—AnEmerging Foodborne Pathogen. Retrieved on January 23rd 2010 fromCenters for Disease Prevention and Control,(2008).Campylobacter. Retrieved January 23rd 2010fromFood and Drug Administration(2009). Bad Bug Book - Campylobacter jejuni. RetrievedJanuary 23rd 2010 fromalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm htmFood safety and Inspection service. Foodborne Illness and Disease,(2006). RetrievedEnvironmental Protection Agency(2009). Public Drinking Water SystemsPrograms. Retrieved January 23rd 2010 from
22 REFERENCES:Kidshealth(2010).Infections :Campylobacter Infections. Retrieved on January 23rd 2010fromMoeller, D.W. (2005). Environmental health (3rd ed.). Boston: Harvard University PressNational Library of Medicine and the National Institute ofHealth(2010).Campylobacter enteritis. Retrieved on January 23rd 2010 fromPerko-Mäkelä,P .,Isohanni,P., Katzav,M.,Lund, M., Hänninen,M., & Lyhs,U.,(2009).A longitudinal study of Campylobacter distribution in a turkey production chain. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 51:18 doi: /World Health Organization(2010).Campylobacter .Retrieved on January 23rd2010 fromVermont Department of Health(2005).Campylobacter .Retrieved on January 23rd 2010 ,from