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Prepared by Michelle I. McKeogh Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Learning Styles This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program Using Technology in the Classroom Gary G. Bitter & Jane M. Legacy Chapter 6
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 VARK Learning Styles VARKVARK Visual Aural Read/Write Kinesthetic
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Study Practices Select your particular preference(s) to see how you should: –Take in information to perform well and learn effectively
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Appealing to Visual Learners Teachers must keep in mind that visual learners are interested in color, layout, and design.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Visual Study Strategies Textbooks with diagrams and pictures Highlight & Underline Remembering the format material is presented in Pictures, posters, slides
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Appealing to Aural Learners As teachers, we must remember that students are going to remember the funny stories, jokes, and examples we give them. Aural learners are listening.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Aural Study Practices Prefer to have everything explained to them versus reading it for themselves Discuss topics with teachers & others Use a tape recorder Describe the lesson to someone who wasnt there
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Appealing to Read/Write Learners These learners will be happier with each new handout they receive from their teacher. Appeal to these learners by turning visuals such as diagrams, charts or illustrations into words.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Read/Write Study Strategies Create lists using headings Write out definitions Read and write your notes repeatedly Review the text
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Appealing to Kinesthetic Learners Provide your kinesthetic learners with opportunities for hands on learning. They need to experience the lesson in order for them to understand it. Try using case studies to illustrate the main points of the lesson.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Kinesthetic Study Strategies Remember what you sensed around you at the time of the lesson (ie. sight, touch, taste, smell, hearing) Recall –field trips –experiments –trial and error –Hands-on approaches
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Multimodal Preferences You have multiple preferences 50% - 75% of the population fits in this group Some people have equal preferences for all 4 modes due to adapting to the mode being used or requested
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Based on the MBTI ® Instrument http://www.capt.org/The_MBTI_Instrument/Home.cfm
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Our personality plays an important part in determining our learning style.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Dimensions 1.Extroversion vs. Introversion 2.Sensing vs. Intuition 3.Thinking vs. Feeling 4.Judging vs. Perceptive
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Introversion vs. Extroversion This indicates whether a learner prefers to direct attention towards the external world of people and things or toward the internal world of concepts and ideas. This preference tells us from where people get their energy. http://www.capt.org/The_MBTI_Instrument/Home.cfm
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Introversion vs. Extroversion –Find energy in the inner world of ideas, concepts, and abstractions –Want to relate new information to old –Reflective thinkers –Prefer interaction with others, action- oriented –Talk more than listen –Learn by teaching others
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Sensing vs. Intuition This indicates whether a learner prefers to perceive the world by directly observing the surrounding reality or through impressions and imagining possibilities. http://www.capt.org/The_MBTI_Instrument/Home.cfm
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Sensing vs. Intuition Rely on their 5 senses Detail-oriented Learners prefer organized, linear, and structured lectures Step-by-step learning Innovative thinkers Trust hunches and look for big picture Learners prefer concept maps and compare and contrast tables
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Thinking vs. Feeling This indicates how the learner makes decisions, either through logic or by using fairness and human values. http://www.capt.org/The_MBTI_Instrument/Home.cfm
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Thinking vs. Feeling Value fairness Logical, straight- forward thinkers Prefer clear goal and objectives Value harmony by focusing on human values to make decisions or judgments Persuasive and good mediators Enjoy small group exercises
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Judging vs. Perceptive This indicates how the learner views the world, either as a structured and planned environment or as a spontaneous environment. http://www.capt.org/The_MBTI_Instrument/Home.cfm
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Judging vs. Perceptive Decisive, self-starters Focus on completing the task Can be encouraged by offering self- improvement Deadline oriented Curious, adaptable, and spontaneous Postpone doing assignments Breaking down complex projects will help keep them on target
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Tapping Into Multiple Intelligences Based on Howard Gardners Theory
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 What Is Intelligence? Utilizing newly acquired knowledge to resolve problems or conflicts to improve a situation.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Who is Howard Gardner? Claims that all humans have multiple intelligences which can be nurtured and strengthened or ignored and weakened. He believes each individual has nine intelligences.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The 9 Intelligences: 1.Verbal-Linguistic 2.Mathematical- Logical 3.Musical 4.Visual-Spatial 5.Bodily-Kinesthetic 6.Interpersonal 7.Intrapersonal 8.Naturalist 9.Existential
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008
Theory Concepts: All human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying amounts. Each person has a different intellectual composition.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 How can applying M.I. theory help students learn better? Students begin to understand in what ways they are intelligent. –Identify their strengths We can improve education by addressing the multiple intelligences of our students.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Understanding the Balance When students understand the balance of their own multiple intelligences they begin: To manage their own learning To value their individual strengths
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 To Help Understand How Students Learn Best Take a Multiple Intelligences Self- Inventory. –http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/ mi/index.htmlhttp://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/ mi/index.html
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Applying MI in the Classroom Teachers are creating lesson plans specifically geared towards addressing the multiple intelligences of their students. Students may demonstrate understanding through multiple intelligence activities.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Classroom Activities Group discussion –Verbal-Linguistic; Interpersonal Journal writing –Intrapersonal; Verbal/Linguistic Constructing timelines - Logical-Mathematical; Visual-Spatial Making a video –Logical-Mathematical, Musical-Rhythmic; Verbal/Linguistic; Interpersonal; Visual-Spatial
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Classroom Activities (Cont.) Writing a report or essay –Verbal-Linguistic Making graphs –Logical-Mathematical; Visual-Spatial Designing posters –Verbal-Linguistic, Visual-Spatial Communicating with experts online –Verbal-Linguistic; Interpersonal
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Classroom Activities Hands-on experimentation –Kinesthetic; Logical/Mathematical Composing a song –Musical/Rhythmic; Verbal-Linguistic Building a model or 3-D displays –Kinesthetic; Logical-Mathematical
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Does MI Curriculum Measure Up to State and National Standards? Students may represent their understanding and knowledge of the topic being studied in a number of ways using M.I. The goal is to maximize both understanding and self-esteem for students to perform better on standardized tests.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Keys to Curriculum Structure and Lesson Planning 1.It is important to teach subject matter through a variety of activities and projects. 2.Assessments should be integrated into learning. 3.It is counterproductive to label students with a particular intelligence.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Implementation Exercises 1.Learning Centers 2.Simulations 3.Presentations
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Learning Centers Reading/Writing Center –(Verbal/Linguistic; Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligences) Illustration/Visual Expression Center –(Visual/Spatial; Intrapersonal Intelligences) Science/Experiment Center –(Logical/Mathematical, Naturalist, Visual/Spatial Intelligences)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Learning Centers (Conclusion) Math Center –(Logical/Mathematical, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal Intelligences) Build It/Paint It Center –(Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Logical/Mathematical Intelligences) Performance Center –(Visual/Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Simulations Simulation Activities help develop students' intelligences by allowing them to experiment with real-world activities. –http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/index.htmlhttp://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/mi/index.html
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Simulations Role-Playing Debating –Students get a chance to support their responses Simulation Software –SimCity & Virtus Walk Through
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Presentations Students must understand The material The audience Public speaking
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Multiple Intelligence Lesson Plans Lesson plans are the blueprints of teaching Including more than 3 intelligences in an activity does not provide greater benefit.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Lesson Plan Topic Goals/Objectives Available Time (days, weeks, class periods) Assessment Options Supplies Introducing the Topic Plan for using Using Learning Centers Plan for Using Simulations Plan for Using Presentations
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 The Components Topic –What is subject matter you are teaching? Goals/Objectives –What do you want students to learn? Available Time –How many periods? Assessment Options –How will you know if students understand? Supplies –What will you need to have on hand to complete the lesson? Introducing the Topic –Attention getter/ Focus
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Benefits of Using MI in the Classroom Providing opportunities for authentic learning based on your students' needs, interests and talents. Parent and community involvement may increase. Students will demonstrate and share their strengths. Teaching for understanding
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Countless educators have incorporated multiple intelligence theory into their work.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Putting the Styles Together Remember that no single measurement of style ensures that a learners needs will be met. It is more important to build an adaptable learning environment that presents the material in a variety of methods than try to determine each learners personal style. http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/learning/styles.html#kolb
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Recognizing Your Own Style Ensures you do not unintentionally force one learning style upon your learners. The more styles you address, the easier the instruction will be received by the learners. Material presented in a variety of methods keeps the learners interested and reinforces itself.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2008 Whats My Style? Teaching Style Surveys: –http://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.htmlhttp://longleaf.net/teachingstyle.html –http://www.creativelearningcentre.com/products.asp?pa ge=TSAEDU&theme=lsathttp://www.creativelearningcentre.com/products.asp?pa ge=TSAEDU&theme=lsat Learning Style Surveys: –http://longleaf.net/learningstyle.htmlhttp://longleaf.net/learningstyle.html –http://ttc.coe.uga.edu/surveys/LearningStyleInv.htmlhttp://ttc.coe.uga.edu/surveys/LearningStyleInv.html –http://www.learning-styles- online.com/inventory/questions.asp?cookieset=yhttp://www.learning-styles- online.com/inventory/questions.asp?cookieset=y
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