Presentation on theme: "Language Disorders in Children"— Presentation transcript:
1Language Disorders in Children Unit FiveLanguageDisorders in Children
2Foundations of Language Disorders in Children Chapter 16Foundations ofLanguage Disordersin Children
3Language DisorderImpaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systemsMay involve form, content, and/or useThis is ASHA’s definition (1993)3
4Language DelaySlower start at developing language but eventually catch up to peers
5Language DifferenceLanguage affected by cultural and linguistic diversity
6Prevalence and Incidence 7 to 8 percent of kindergarten children have specific language impairments with no other complicating conditions2 percent more boys than girls have specific language impairment (SLI)
7Multicultural Considerations All clients must be respected as individuals with individual cultural and ethnic valuesMany children from CLD backgrounds live in povertyIncreases the risk for language problems
8Specific Language Impairments Chapter 17SpecificLanguage Impairments
9Severity Levels Mild Moderate Severe Profound See Figure 17-1 of Paul’s (2001) list of variations in severity9
10Specific Language Impairments (SLI) Significant receptive and/or expressive language impairments that cannot be attributed to a cause or condition
11SLIA complex disorder that may have multiple genetic influences that interact with environmental factors
12Red Flags for a Potential SLI First word after 18 monthsTwo word combinations later than 30 months of ageReliance on gesturesLimited use of verbs
13Red Flags for a Potential SLI Lack of yes/no responses to questionsDifficulty with rhyming and naming lettersDifficulty initiating interactions with peersPoor conversational turn-taking
14Receptive LanguageDifficulty understanding and integrating informationDifficultly understanding words
15Phonology May produce unusual phonological errors Substitutions of t/r or k/b
16Morphology and Syntax Late developing morphology and syntax Use short, incomplete sentencesSimple, active formRefer to list from Hegde and Maul (2006) and Leonard, McGregor and Allen (1992) in text.
17Vocabulary Small vocabularies Slow acquisition of vocabulary Poor word knowledgeWord-finding problemsSee Table 17-1 in text.
18Discourse/DialogueDifficulty having conversations with others
19Narratives Difficulty telling stories or recounting events Due to limited vocabulary:Challenges with morphology/syntaxRecalling memories of eventsOrganization of information
20Pragmatics Initiate conversations less Difficulty gaining access to conversationsPassive conversationalistsCase study of Michael is presented.
22Language-Learning Disabilities (LLD) Term SLI is usually changed to language-learning disability when a child enters schoolLLD has effects on learning and educational achievement
23LLD Prevalence is 12 to13 percent for 5 year olds 4.5 percent also have speech disorders
24Metalinguistics Ability to think about and talk about language Very difficult for children with LLD
25Adolescents: Receptive Language Weak vocabularyDifficulty with abstract words and words with multiple meaningsFigurative language (slang, jargon) is difficult
26Adolescents: Expressive Language Use low content or no content wordsSimple syntaxViolate pragmatic rules
27Developmental Disabilities and Language Disabilities Disability originating before 18 years of ageSignificant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviorPrevalence is 1 to 3 percent
28Classification Systems AAMR system indicates amount of support for individuals with developmental disabilitiesSee Table 18-1See Table 18-1 for levels of impairment.
29Receptive LanguageSingle word comprehension better than longer utterancesUnderstand concrete information better than abstract information
30Expressive Language Limited vocabulary Difficulty with word recall Don’t initiate conversations
31Phonology Speech unintelligibility is common Up to 70 percent of children with developmental disabilities
32Down SyndromeMost common chromosomal cause of developmental disabilitiesImpaired comprehension and expressive skillsSpeech affected by hypotonia and/or macroglossia
33Autism Complex behavioral syndrome that appears by age 3 Marked absent interest in social interactionSeverely impaired communicationRepetitive, stereotyped movements
34AutismIntellectual disabilities occur in three-quarters of children with autismAutism is within the broader category of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)ASD is within category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD)See Figure 18-2.
35Autism: Receptive Language Receptive language abilities are similar to child’s mental age
36Autism: Expressive Language 50 percent are nonverbalEcholaliaAutomatic repetition of words, phrases, sentencesUsed by someIdiosyncratic language used
37Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Acquired injury to the brainChildren tend to have good recoveryMay have long-term speech and language deficitsCognitive impairments may occurMemory, attention, problem solvingCase study of Azzie presented.
38Assessment and Diagnosis of Language-Learning Disabilities Chapter 19Assessment andDiagnosis ofLanguage-Learning Disabilities
39Purposes of Assessment Does the child qualify for servicesIdentification of language problemsDescription of patterns of languageFactors associated with language problemsTreatment planningPrognosis
40Approaches to Assessment Normalist/PsychometricNaturalistic/descriptive/criterion-referenced
41Psychometric Formal approach to assessment Standardized tests are administered and interpretedTests are normed on a large group of children so comparisons can be made
42Criterion-Referenced Description of a child’s language abilities based on natural observationsComparison of present performance to past performance
43ScreeningBrief one-on-one observation and measure of a child's communication abilitiesFigure 19-1 provides examples of language screening instruments.
44Assessment Protocol Interview Formal evaluation Hearing screening Articulation/phonologyLanguageOrofacial structuresHearing screeningMeeting to review test results
45Evaluation of Receptive Language Single word vocabularyMorphologySentence structuresFollowing commandsQuestionsSee Table 19-1 for a list of tests for different age levels.
46Evaluation of Expressive Language Sounds and wordsMorphologyNamingAnswering questionsNarrative skillsConversationsSee Table 19-1 for tests.
47Language SamplesA sample of the child's speech with a clinician and/or family memberAllows for a systematic analysis to determine speech and language competence
48Decision Making Child's strength and weakness Severity of impairment Contributors to the impairmentTreatment recommendations
49Therapy Approaches Traditional Functional Collaborative Often used in schools
50Evaluation of Bilingual Children Both languages should be evaluatedIf one language is within normal limits, then a disorder probably does not existA concomitant disorder may exist
51Treatment of Language Disorders Chapter 20Treatment ofLanguage Disorders
52Baseline Measures Measure of a behavior at the beginning of treatment Future progress can be compared to this baseline
53Selecting Goals Operationally defined goal must include: An observable and measurable behaviorSetting/environmentCriterionPercent accuracyStimuli used
54Three Models of Therapy Within disciplineInterdisciplinaryTransdisciplinaryGeneral principles of therapy are presented in Figure 20-2.
55Traditional Approach to Teaching Language Skills Focus on functional language skillsSkills relevant to a child’s environment at home and/or schoolStructured hierarchical approach to moving through goalsText prides a structure approach for a
56Structure of Sessions Use well-organized and structured sessions Clinician is preplanned but flexible to accommodate the child’s needs
57General Session General conversation Review of what child has worked onWork on new targetsReview of another skillChallenging tasksEnd of session
58Other Therapy Approaches Functional language modelEmerging language modelCollaborative modelNaturalistic model
59Multicultural Considerations SLPs need to consider their own cultural beliefs, attitude, and valuesDo not use generic termsBeware of terms that have questionable or negative racial or ethnic connotations
60Multicultural Considerations Present clear explanations and objectivesUse methods that do not violate beliefs of clientBe flexibleInteract with clients according to their perceptions and expectations
61Multicultural Considerations Be task orientedUse praiseProvide opportunities to learn
62Literacy Disorders in Children Chapter 21LiteracyDisorders in Children
63Literacy DisorderIndividual has both reading and writing impairments
64Dyslexia Most common learning disability in children and adults 75 to 85 percent of children with learning disabilities have reading impairmentsPrevalence is 4:1Male to female
65Emergent Literacy Literacy development begins soon after birth Literacy and language are reciprocally relatedChildren are active in literacy process
66Skills Related to Literacy Achievement Phonological awarenessOral languageAlphabet knowledgeConcepts about printName writing
67Emergent Literacy Adult involvement is essential Shared storybook reading is important component
68Possible Contributions of English to Reading Difficulties Inconsistencies in pronunciations of wordsInconsistencies in letter-sound correspondenceInconsistencies in shapes of lettersSee Table 21-1
69Problems of Children with Literacy Disabilities Deficits in phonological processingWord recognition and spellingUnderachievement
70Secondary Consequences Academic difficultiesInfluences on occupation and career choicesReading as a leisure activityInterpersonal relationships
71Writing Reading and writing are connected Different types of writing require different cognitive abilities and use different vocabulary
73Multicultural Considerations Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgroundsGreater likelihood of beginning school less prepared to learn to read than other groups of children
74Effects of Language Disorders on the Child and Family Chapter 22Emotional and SocialEffects of Language Disorders on the Child and Family
75ParentsParents alter their interactions if their child has a language impairmentParents initiate more interactionsAsk more questionsUse fewer utterances per turnRespond or comment less to their child
76ParentsThere is an emotional response by parents to learning that their child has a problemIEP meetings may be overwhelmingNot all cultures support family involvementSome parents may have their own language or cognitive problems
77Toddlers and Preschoolers May be perceived negatively by other preschoolers because of poor communication and social skills
78School-age Children with LLD May be less accepted by their peersChildren with LLD perceive themselves more negatively that their peersTend to avoid social interaction
79AdolescentsEmotional-social difficulties increase for adolescents with LLDMental issues and anxiety disorders may develop
80Personal and Societal Costs Undereducation and underemployment are common results for an adult with a language disorderAdolescent language disorders are related to juvenile delinquency