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Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Unit Five Language Disorders in Children.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Unit Five Language Disorders in Children."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Unit Five Language Disorders in Children

2 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Chapter 16 Foundations of Language Disorders in Children

3 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 3 Language Disorder Impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, written, and/or other symbol systems May involve form, content, and/or use

4 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 4 Language Delay Slower start at developing language but eventually catch up to peers

5 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 5 Language Difference Language affected by cultural and linguistic diversity

6 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 6 Prevalence and Incidence 7 to 8 percent of kindergarten children have specific language impairments with no other complicating conditions 2 percent more boys than girls have specific language impairment (SLI)

7 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 7 Multicultural Considerations All clients must be respected as individuals with individual cultural and ethnic values Many children from CLD backgrounds live in poverty –Increases the risk for language problems

8 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Chapter 17 Specific Language Impairments

9 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 9 Severity Levels Mild Moderate Severe Profound

10 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 10 Specific Language Impairments (SLI) Significant receptive and/or expressive language impairments that cannot be attributed to a cause or condition

11 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 11 SLI A complex disorder that may have multiple genetic influences that interact with environmental factors

12 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 12 Red Flags for a Potential SLI First word after 18 months Two word combinations later than 30 months of age Reliance on gestures Limited use of verbs

13 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 13 Red Flags for a Potential SLI Lack of yes/no responses to questions Difficulty with rhyming and naming letters Difficulty initiating interactions with peers Poor conversational turn-taking

14 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 14 Receptive Language Difficulty understanding and integrating information Difficultly understanding words

15 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 15 Phonology May produce unusual phonological errors –Substitutions of t/r or k/b

16 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 16 Morphology and Syntax Late developing morphology and syntax Use short, incomplete sentences Simple, active form

17 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 17 Vocabulary Small vocabularies Slow acquisition of vocabulary Poor word knowledge Word-finding problems

18 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 18 Discourse/Dialogue Difficulty having conversations with others

19 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 19 Narratives Difficulty telling stories or recounting events Due to limited vocabulary: –Challenges with morphology/syntax –Recalling memories of events –Organization of information

20 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 20 Pragmatics Initiate conversations less Difficulty gaining access to conversations Passive conversationalists

21 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Chapter 18 Language-Learning Disabilities

22 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 22 Language-Learning Disabilities (LLD) Term SLI is usually changed to language-learning disability when a child enters school LLD has effects on learning and educational achievement

23 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 23 LLD Prevalence is 12 to13 percent for 5 year olds 4.5 percent also have speech disorders

24 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 24 Metalinguistics Ability to think about and talk about language Very difficult for children with LLD

25 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 25 Adolescents: Receptive Language Weak vocabulary Difficulty with abstract words and words with multiple meanings Figurative language (slang, jargon) is difficult

26 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 26 Adolescents: Expressive Language Use low content or no content words Simple syntax Violate pragmatic rules

27 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 27 Developmental Disabilities and Language Disabilities Disability originating before 18 years of age Significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior Prevalence is 1 to 3 percent

28 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 28 Classification Systems AAMR system indicates amount of support for individuals with developmental disabilities See Table 18-1

29 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 29 Receptive Language Single word comprehension better than longer utterances Understand concrete information better than abstract information

30 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 30 Expressive Language Limited vocabulary Difficulty with word recall Dont initiate conversations

31 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 31 Phonology Speech unintelligibility is common –Up to 70 percent of children with developmental disabilities

32 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 32 Down Syndrome Most common chromosomal cause of developmental disabilities Impaired comprehension and expressive skills Speech affected by hypotonia and/or macroglossia

33 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 33 Autism Complex behavioral syndrome that appears by age 3 Marked absent interest in social interaction Severely impaired communication Repetitive, stereotyped movements

34 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 34 Autism Intellectual disabilities occur in three- quarters of children with autism Autism is within the broader category of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ASD is within category of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD)

35 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 35 Autism: Receptive Language Receptive language abilities are similar to childs mental age

36 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 36 Autism: Expressive Language 50 percent are nonverbal Echolalia –Automatic repetition of words, phrases, sentences Used by some Idiosyncratic language used

37 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 37 Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Acquired injury to the brain Children tend to have good recovery May have long-term speech and language deficits Cognitive impairments may occur –Memory, attention, problem solving

38 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Chapter 19 Assessment and Diagnosis of Language-Learning Disabilities

39 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 39 Purposes of Assessment Does the child qualify for services Identification of language problems Description of patterns of language Factors associated with language problems Treatment planning Prognosis

40 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 40 Approaches to Assessment Normalist/Psychometric Naturalistic/descriptive/criterion- referenced

41 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 41 Psychometric Formal approach to assessment Standardized tests are administered and interpreted Tests are normed on a large group of children so comparisons can be made

42 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 42 Criterion-Referenced Description of a childs language abilities based on natural observations Comparison of present performance to past performance

43 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 43 Screening Brief one-on-one observation and measure of a child's communication abilities

44 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 44 Assessment Protocol Interview Formal evaluation –Articulation/phonology –Language –Orofacial structures Hearing screening Meeting to review test results

45 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 45 Evaluation of Receptive Language Single word vocabulary Morphology Sentence structures Following commands Questions

46 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 46 Evaluation of Expressive Language Sounds and words Morphology Naming Answering questions Narrative skills Conversations

47 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 47 Language Samples A sample of the child's speech with a clinician and/or family member Allows for a systematic analysis to determine speech and language competence

48 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 48 Decision Making Child's strength and weakness Severity of impairment Contributors to the impairment Treatment recommendations

49 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 49 Therapy Approaches Traditional Functional Collaborative –Often used in schools

50 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 50 Evaluation of Bilingual Children Both languages should be evaluated If one language is within normal limits, then a disorder probably does not exist A concomitant disorder may exist

51 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Chapter 20 Treatment of Language Disorders

52 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 52 Baseline Measures Measure of a behavior at the beginning of treatment Future progress can be compared to this baseline

53 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 53 Selecting Goals Operationally defined goal must include: –An observable and measurable behavior –Setting/environment –Criterion –Percent accuracy –Stimuli used

54 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 54 Three Models of Therapy Within discipline Interdisciplinary Transdisciplinary

55 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 55 Traditional Approach to Teaching Language Skills Focus on functional language skills –Skills relevant to a childs environment at home and/or school Structured hierarchical approach to moving through goals

56 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 56 Structure of Sessions Use well-organized and structured sessions Clinician is preplanned but flexible to accommodate the childs needs

57 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 57 General Session General conversation Review of what child has worked on Work on new targets Review of another skill Challenging tasks End of session

58 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 58 Other Therapy Approaches Functional language model Emerging language model Collaborative model Naturalistic model

59 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 59 Multicultural Considerations SLPs need to consider their own cultural beliefs, attitude, and values Do not use generic terms Beware of terms that have questionable or negative racial or ethnic connotations

60 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 60 Multicultural Considerations Present clear explanations and objectives Use methods that do not violate beliefs of client Be flexible Interact with clients according to their perceptions and expectations

61 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 61 Multicultural Considerations Be task oriented Use praise Provide opportunities to learn

62 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Chapter 21 Literacy Disorders in Children

63 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 63 Literacy Disorder Individual has both reading and writing impairments

64 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 64 Dyslexia Most common learning disability in children and adults 75 to 85 percent of children with learning disabilities have reading impairments Prevalence is 4:1 –Male to female

65 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 65 Emergent Literacy Literacy development begins soon after birth Literacy and language are reciprocally related Children are active in literacy process

66 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 66 Skills Related to Literacy Achievement Phonological awareness Oral language Alphabet knowledge Concepts about print Name writing

67 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 67 Emergent Literacy Adult involvement is essential Shared storybook reading is important component

68 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 68 Possible Contributions of English to Reading Difficulties Inconsistencies in pronunciations of words Inconsistencies in letter-sound correspondence Inconsistencies in shapes of letters

69 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 69 Problems of Children with Literacy Disabilities Deficits in phonological processing Word recognition and spelling Underachievement

70 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 70 Secondary Consequences Academic difficulties Influences on occupation and career choices Reading as a leisure activity Interpersonal relationships

71 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 71 Writing Reading and writing are connected Different types of writing require different cognitive abilities and use different vocabulary

72 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 72 Writing Problems Inadequate reference to subject Inconsistent noun-pronoun agreement Inconsistent gender words Punctuation problems Spelling errors

73 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 73 Multicultural Considerations Children from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds –Greater likelihood of beginning school less prepared to learn to read than other groups of children

74 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. Chapter 22 Emotional and Social Effects of Language Disorders on the Child and Family

75 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 75 Parents Parents alter their interactions if their child has a language impairment –Parents initiate more interactions –Ask more questions –Use fewer utterances per turn –Respond or comment less to their child

76 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 76 Parents There is an emotional response by parents to learning that their child has a problem –IEP meetings may be overwhelming –Not all cultures support family involvement –Some parents may have their own language or cognitive problems

77 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 77 Toddlers and Preschoolers May be perceived negatively by other preschoolers because of poor communication and social skills

78 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 78 School-age Children with LLD May be less accepted by their peers Children with LLD perceive themselves more negatively that their peers Tend to avoid social interaction

79 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 79 Adolescents Emotional-social difficulties increase for adolescents with LLD Mental issues and anxiety disorders may develop

80 Copyright © 2008 Delmar. All rights reserved. 80 Personal and Societal Costs Undereducation and underemployment are common results for an adult with a language disorder Adolescent language disorders are related to juvenile delinquency


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