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RAD Techniques with Advantage CA-ADS Brock Shaw Torrodon Associates.

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1 RAD Techniques with Advantage CA-ADS Brock Shaw Torrodon Associates

2 Abstract Examine some of the Rapid Application Development techniques which can be used while developing Advantage CA-ADS and Advantage CA-IDMS applications. These techniques apply particularly well to 4GLs such as ADS. The technique described makes use of familiar RAD concepts of JRD and JAD workshops but more fundamentally to the use of development cycles based on the concept of Time-box. Examples of this approach are given.

3 Speaker Bio Brock Shaw Torridon Associates Brock has worked with IDMS since 1973 and has been involved with the product throughout the subsequent years. First working for Sperry Univac, then Cullinane, Cullinet and as an independent consultant, he has worked on most aspects of the CA-IDMS environment and in most roles.

4 Topics for Session What is RAD? Software development issues What is a Time-box? What RAD models are there? Single development cycle. Case histories. Advantage CA-ADS and RAD

5 What is RAD? For development of software systems RAD is essentially a set of: Techniques to minimise elapsed time Techniques to maximise user involvement Techniques to maximise user ownership Techniques to handle business change Techniques to make PM easier

6 Specific RAD Techniques User involvement and ownership Workshop techniques (JRD, JAD) Prototyping (incomplete end-products) Time planning and project management Iterative development Frequent release of products

7 Traditional Development Older development methodologies are based on: Performing a sequence of tasks in a fixed order Getting signoff at each significant stage Following the sequence of the methodology Problems with these are: For large systems implies long periods without usable products. They do not respond well to change

8 The Waterfall Model Stage 0 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 6 Feasibility Study Requirements Analysis Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Investigate Current Environment Business Systems Options Technical Systems Options Logical Design Physical Design SSADM

9 Project Planning and the Waterfall How does it work? Start with a list of tasks to be done to complete the project. Establish the dependencies of the jobs on other jobs in the list. Work out how long the whole project will take to complete

10 Starting the Planning Process p0p0 p2p2 p5p5 p1p1 p4p4 p3p3 p7p7 p6p6

11 …then the Plan Grows p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27

12 … until the Final Plan p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27

13 Calculating Completion Time Project Duration p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27

14 Critical Path p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27

15 Critical Path Change p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27

16 Problem 1: Size of Project For a large project: –difficult to visualise the project as a whole –difficult to know status at any time –difficult to predict impact of slippage –difficult to predict impact of change These are limits of the human ability This is comparable to reasons for structure in programming Not possible without PM aids

17 Project Creep Slow accumulation of slippage Essential business changes required PM cannot easily grasp the impact of events Failure to realise the shift in CP Project Creep is the most common cause of the failure of large high visibility projects.

18 The Waterfall & Change Stage 0 Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Stage 6 Feasibility Study Requirements Analysis Requirements Specification Logical System Specification Investigate Current Environment Business Systems Options Technical Systems Options Logical Design Physical Design

19 Changing such a Plan! p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27 p0p0 p1p1 p2p2 p3p3 p4p4 p5p5 p6p6 p7p7 p 20 p 19 p 21 p 25 p 24 p 22 p 23 p 26 p 10 p 11 p2p2 p 15 p 14 p 12 p 13 p 14 p 29 p 30 p 32 p 36 p 31 p 33 p 34 p 35 p 99 p8p8 p 16 p 28 p9p9 p 17 p 18 p 27

20 Problem 2: Handling Change Life is change. Modern business needs flexibility and responsiveness To do this, development must be iterative Large CP project planning becomes very cumbersome as complexity increases.

21 The Planning Paradigm Basic formula: t=F(f,r) (f= product features; r= resources available) Traditional techniques hold features and resources constant and calculate end time There is another alternative: –Hold time constant and respond to change by adjusting product features or resources

22 How can this Work? Make a big project into a collection of small ones Each sub-project has real deliverables Not all functions of a system are of the same importance A given function may if necessary be deferred Such functions are simply planned for a later sub- project If a function must be bumped from one sub-project there will be another one along in a little while We use the concept of a Time-box, a mini-project that has a fixed duration

23 A Time-box A period of time is defined, usually 1 to 2 months. THIS IS FIXED. Planning determines what features are anticipated to be accomplished in the time Planning determines what arrangement of resource will achieve the work Features classified as must have, etc. PM responds to slippage by bumping lower priority features not by delivering late!

24 Time-box Advantages Smaller project is easer to control Limited commitment (less to lose) User change easier (Time-box like a bus!) Business change handled (iteration) EACH TIME-BOX HAS A PRODUCT Frequent appearance of products pleases users and management

25 Time-box Driven Projects Overall project must have a general plan Plan is broken into time-boxes Detailed schedule only current time-box(es) Time-box is a short time so low cost of change allows risks to be taken Each feature may be revisited if necessary in each time-box of the overall plan

26 Responding to Slippage Three alternative strategies: –1. Eliminate functionality from the time-box products –2. Assign more resources to the project –3. Plan an additional mini time-box

27 RAD Objectives and Time-box Techniques to minimise elapsed time Techniques to maximise user involvement Techniques to maximise user ownership Techniques to handle business change Techniques to make PM easier

28 Development Methodologies Waterfall Waterfall with iteration RAD

29 Development cycles Functional Iteration Design and Build Iteration Implementation Iteration Feasibility Study Business Study DSDM

30 Single Development Cycle

31 Time-box Planning Strategy StartEnd Analysis and Design Build Test Implement Time-box Threads of activity

32 Threads Requirements Strategy StartEnd Analysis and Design Build Test Implement Time-box Threads of activity

33 Threads Requirements Strategy StartEnd Design Build Test Implement Time-box Threads of activity Analysis

34 Time-box Preparation Strategy StartEnd Analysis and Design Build Test Implement Strategy StartEnd Analysis and Design Build Test Implement Time-box 1 Threads of activity Time-box 2 REVIEWREVIEW

35 When Time-boxes are most effective. When programming environment is supportive When components are amenable to iterative development When application framework can iterate When minimal input will build starter component When even initial prototypes are products When there is good repository support

36 RAD Case histories Mainframe OO Environments Web ADS/O General PM

37 A Business Opportunity COBOL environment Unanticipated and hence unplanned Competitive pricing paradigm change Industry regulator involvement Necessary to start in 30 days Could survive reduced service for 60 days Traditional methods would require 90+ days

38 Mainframe Model TB1 TB2 Pricing s/r build Simple Batch vehicle Focused VV&T Simple implementation Pricing s/r refinement On-line vehicle Full-scale VV&T Full-scale implementation

39 Compressing the Project TB1 TB2 Pricing s/r Simple Batch vehicle Focused VV&T Simple implementation Pricing s/r refinement On-line vehicle Full-scale VV&T Full-scale implementation

40 RAD Case histories Mainframe OO Environments Web ADS/O General PM

41 Object Orientation Encapsulation means data and business entities are developed independently of use Solutions are immediately shareable Easier to stage data implementations

42 The New IDEs Enhanced editors and languages Object orientation Application templates Live debugging Source controls Implementation/deployment aids

43 OOD Project TB1 TB4 TB3 TB5 Objects & Test Beds Function Data Access Function TB2 Screen Forms

44 OOD Project Compressed TB1 TB4 TB3 TB5 Object & Test Beds Function Data Access Function TB2 Screen Forms Team 1 Team 2 Function

45 RAD Case histories Mainframe OO Environments Web ADS/O General PM

46 Easing into Web The stages of a web application –Brochureware –Web intelligence –Simple business functions –Full eBusiness Stages can become basis for time-boxes Needs overall plan, documentation framework Flexible project teams

47 Simple Web Project TB1 TB4 TB3 TB5 Brochureware Web Services Simple Data Access eBusiness TB2 Data Objects

48 Projects that End in Tiers TB1 TB4 TB5 TB6 Brochureware Web Services Simple Data Access eBusiness functions TB2 Customer responsiveness TB3 Data Objects Client Server Backend

49 RAD Case histories Mainframe OO Environments Web ADS/O General PM

50 Advantage CA-ADSO Dialogs, Mapping, IDD all support process Dialogs are amenable to iteration ADSA provides flexible application framework Minimum dialog requires only a map IDD provides repository for data structures, code, appl. structure, etc. Prototyping can build final product

51 CA-ADS Application Components Data structure Utility subroutines Application Structure Maps Basic (minimum logic) Dialogs Functional areas Data load

52 ADSO Project Plan 1 TB1 TB4 TB3 TB5 Application Structure & MAPs Utility & Load Functions Data Entry Components Key Function #1 TB2 Database Components TB6 Key Function #2 TB7 Miscellaneous Functions

53 ADSO Project Plan 2 TB1TB4 TB3 TB5 Application Structure & MAPs Utility & Load Functions Data Entry Components Key Function #1 TB2 Database Components TB6 Key Function #2 TB7 Miscellaneous Functions Team 1 Team 2 Team 3

54 Other Factors for Success More flexible project structures Designing components for segmentation Object-isation – imitating OOP Importance of Overall Plan Focus on segmentation of product and on what is releasable

55 Maximising User Input Techniques to maximise user involvement Techniques to maximise user ownership Joint Requirements Development Joint Application Development These techniques are important and effective but not the focus of this session.

56 RAD Case histories Mainframe OO Environments Web ADS/O General PM

57 General Applications The Time-box technique: –is not restricted to IT projects –is principally an attitude of mind

58 Review of Topics What is RAD? Software development issues What is a Time-box? What RAD models are there? Single development cycle. Case histories. CA/ADSO and RAD

59 Questions & Answers

60 Session Evaluation Form... please place it in the basket at the back of the room. After completing your session evaluation form...

61 Notes


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