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**Specifying Units of Measure in POSL and RuleML1**

Specifying Units of Measure in POSL and RuleML1.0: Targeting OO jDREW Execution Instructor: Dr Harold Boley Advisor: Tara Athan Team members Chandan Bagai Sunil Kumar Ravikumar Udit Trivedi

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**Agenda Introduction Base Dimensions**

Multiples and Sub Multiples of Base Dimension Derived Units Invertibility Conclusion

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Introduction Specifying units of measure in base units and derived units using POSL and RuleML 1.0. Facts specifying base dimension and conversion constants for derived units. Specifying derived dimensions in terms of base dimension. Conversion between units of measure. Targeting execution in OO jDREW.

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**Base Dimensions and Units**

● Mass: kilogram (kg) ● Length: meter (m) ● Time: second (sec) ● Current: Ampere (A) ● Temperature: Kelvin (K) ● Amount of substance: Mole (mol) ● Intensity of light: candela (cd) ● Note: These are 7 base dimensions.

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Dimensional Analysis Tom Gruber’s axiom and definition of physical quantities and standard units in lisp are used as facts and predicates in POSL and RuleML. Multiples ,sub multiples and derived units are obtained either by Multiply quantities==>multiply dimensions Divide quantities ==> divide dimensions

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**Multiples and Sub Multiples of Base Dimension**

Multiple and sub multiples Special symbol Operation Constant Base Unit Dimension Kilometer Km / 1000 M Length Centimeter Cm * 100 Inch In 39.37 Foot Ft 12 Mile mi,ml,m,M 5280 Angstrom ångström 10^10 Yard Furlong Milligram Mg 10^6 Kg Mass Microgram µg 10^9 Gram G Pound Lb 2.2046 Tonne T 0.001

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**Multiples and Sub Multiples of Base Dimension**

Multiple and sub multiples Special symbol Operation Constant Base Unit Dimension Ounce oz * 35.273 kg Mass Slug slug Minute min 60 s Time Hour h or hr 3600 Day d 86400 Week week 604800 Month month Year year Area Square meter L*L m Length Volume Cubic meter L*L*L

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**Derived Units Derived quantity Special name Special symbol**

Expression in terms of other SI units SI base units plane angle radian rad 1 m · m−1 solid angle steradian sr m2 · m−2 frequency hertz Hz s−1 force newton N m · kg · s−2 pressure, stress pascal Pa N/m2 m-1 · kg · s−2 energy, work, quantity of heat joule J N · m m2 · kg · s−2 power, radiant flux watt W J/s m2 · kg · s−3 electric charge, quantity of electricity coulomb C s · A electric potential, potential difference, electromotive force volt V W/A m2 · kg · s−3 · A−1 capacitance farad F C/V m−2 · kg−1 · s4 · A2 electric resistance ohm Ω V/A m2 · kg · s−3 · A−2 electric conductance siemens S A/V m−2 · kg−1 · s3 · A2

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**Derived Units Derived quantity Special name Special symbol**

Expression in terms of other SI units SI base units magnetic flux weber Wb V · s m2 · kg · s−2 · A−1 magnetic flux density tesla T Wb/m2 kg · s−2 · A−1 inductance henry H Wb/A m2 · kg · s−2 · A−2 Celsius temperature degree Celsius °C K luminous flux lumen lm cd · sr cd illuminance lux lx lm/m2 m−2 · cd activity (of a radionuclide) becquerel Bq s−1 absorbed dose, specific energy (imparted), kerma gray Gy J/kg m2 · s−2 dose equivalent, et al. sievert Sv catalytic activity katal kat s−1 · mol

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**Multiples and Sub Multiples of Base Dimension**

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**Acceptable Units(Non SI units)**

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Derived units

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**Celsius to Fahrenheit conversion**

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Conclusion Specifying units of measure and conversion between units has vast application in the field of Science, Engineering, Manufacturing, Commerce, Medicine and Environmental Regulation. Various geographical areas have their own measurements it becomes easier if we specify these in terms of base dimensions.

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Future Enhancements Web service can be implemented and used to get data about currency conversion on daily basis and create facts in knowledge base, which could be used to convert amongst various currencies, using U.S dollar as base unit for currency.

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References 1. POSL- An Integrated Positional-Slotted Language for Semantic Web Knowledge 2. Units of Measure 3. Frank Olken: An Ontology of Measurement Units and Dimensions: 4. NIST UnitsML: 5. Ontolingua Quantities and Units: 6. Functional-Logic Programming

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CHAPTER 1 Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement.

CHAPTER 1 Physical Quantities, Units and Measurement.

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