Presentation on theme: "MEASUREMENT We obtain an understanding of our environment by observing the physical world through measurements. Measurement is a comparison of physical."— Presentation transcript:
1MEASUREMENTWe obtain an understanding of our environment by observing the physical world through measurements.Measurement is a comparison of physical quantity with a standard unit.
2MEASUREMENT It is expressed with numbers and units. Physical characteristics can be expressed in terms of fundamental quantities.Our comprehension of the physical world is based on fundamental quantities.
3FUNDAMENTAL QUANTITIES Four quantities have been identified and specified asfundamental.These are:LengthMassTimeElectric chargeThey form the basis for other quantitiesnecessary to describe and understand thephysical sciences.
4Length We use length to measure location or size. Length is defined as the measurement of space in any direction.Note: Space has three dimensions, each is measured by length.Consider a box:Length (l)Width (w)Height (h)
5Time Time is the continuous forward flow of events. Events allow us to precise time, without events, we have no innate awareness of time.
6Mass Mass quantifies matter. Mass refers to the amount of matter an object contains.
7Electric ChargeElectric Charge is the property associated with some particles, that gives rise to electric forces and electrical phenomena.
8STANDARD UNITSA standard unit is a fixed and reproducible value for the purpose of taking accurate measurements.A set of standard units is referred to as a system of units.
9British System British System uses the familiar unit of: Length: foot Mass: SlugWeight: poundTime: SecondElectric Charge: CoulombNote: It is also called the Gravitational System of Units.
10Metric System Metric System is considered to be simpler than the British System as the conversion is by afactor of ten.The standard units of:Length – meter, mMass – kilogram, kgTime – seconds, sElectric Charge: CoulombThey are called the International System of Units (SIunits).
11Systems of units Metric System Length – meter, m Mass – kilogram, kg Time – seconds, sElectric Charge - CoulombBritish SystemLength: footMass: SlugTime: SecondElectric Charge: CoulombWeight: pound
12International System of Units There are seven base units of the InternationalSystem of Units.Meter, m, measures length.Kilogram, kg, measures mass.Second, s, measures time.Ampere, A, measures electric current.Kelvin, K, measures temperature.Mole, mol, measures amount of substance.Candela, cd, measures luminous intensity.
13Derived QuantitiesDerived Quantities are formed by combining two or more of the fundamental quantities.Examples:Area = length x widthVolume = length x width x heightSpeed = distance/timeDensity = mass/volume
14Density Density refers to how compact or crowded a substance is, that is, the amount of masslocated in a definite volume.Density is simply the mass per unit volume.Density = mass/volume
15Measurement Errors Systematic Errors: Systematic errors are associated with instruments or the technique used.They are as a result of:Improperly calibrated instrumentError incurred from observer’s reading
16Measurement Errors Random Errors: Random Errors result from unknown and unpredictable variations in experimental situations.Such as fluctuation in electrical voltage.Changes in temperature, pressure, etc
17Accuracy / PrecisionAccuracy indicates how close measurement comes to the true value.Precision refers to the agreement among repeated measurement, that is, how close they are together.
18Converting Quantities Use a conversion factor, a ratio relatingone unit to another.Choose the appropriate form of the conversion factor(s) so that the unwanted units cancel.3. Check to see that the unit cancel and thatyou obtain the desired unit.
19Converting Quantities Desired quantity and units = givenquantity and units x conversion factor
20Common relationships 1 kg = 2.2 lbs. 1 lb. = 453.6 g 1 inch = 2.54 cm 1.06 qt = 1 L1.0 mile = km
21Temperature A measure of hotness or coldness of an object . Types of temperature scales:Fahrenheit: on this scale the normal freezing and boiling points of water are taken to be 32F and 212F respectively.Celsius: Boiling point is 100C and the freezing point is 0C