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Electrons Model of atoms 1/15/2014 1

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2 Light was first recognized as manifestation of electromagnetic energy and it was called electromagnetic radiation The Wave Nature of Light

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As electromagnetic wave, light has some characteristics in common with all forms of electromagnetic energy Produced by motion of electrically charged particles Produced by motion of electrically charged particles Move through vacuum (at 3.00 x 10 8 m/s or 186,282 mi/hr), air and other substances Move through vacuum (at 3.00 x 10 8 m/s or 186,282 mi/hr), air and other substances Have characteristic wavelengths/frequencies Have characteristic wavelengths/frequencies Visible radiation has wavelengths between 400 nm (violet) and 750 nm (red) Visible radiation has wavelengths between 400 nm (violet) and 750 nm (red) 1/15/

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1/15/ Wave: disturbance of medium which transports energy without permanently transporting matter Wave: disturbance of medium which transports energy without permanently transporting matter Medium Medium Substance or material that carries wave Substance or material that carries wave Merely carries wave from source to other location Merely carries wave from source to other location

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1/15/ Light is a repeating waveform in motion (amt. energy found in wave) Rest Position: no energy present

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1/15/ Frequency, wavelength, and velocity are inversely proportional to each other If frequency, wavelength If frequency, wavelength Ex. Purple light has a frequency of 7.42 x Hz. What is its wavelength? Ex. Purple light has a frequency of 7.42 x Hz. What is its wavelength? c = c = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s = 7.42 x Hz ( ) 3.00 x 10 8 m/s = 7.42 x Hz ( ) = 4.04 x = 4.04 x 10 -7

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Einstein successful explained photo-electric effect within context of quantum physics Photons: packets of energy that make up light Photons: packets of energy that make up light Each carries specific energy related to its wavelength Each carries specific energy related to its wavelength Photons of short wavelength (blue light) carry more energy than long wavelength (red light) photons Photons of short wavelength (blue light) carry more energy than long wavelength (red light) photons 1/15/2014 9

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Particulate Theory of Light Light is series of energy packets passing through space Light is series of energy packets passing through space Size of energy packets vary/change color of light Size of energy packets vary/change color of light Quantized: electron limited to specific quantities of energy, not random value of energy Quantized: electron limited to specific quantities of energy, not random value of energy Distance between energy packets = wavelength Distance between energy packets = wavelength # photons passing point in period of time = frequency # photons passing point in period of time = frequency 1/15/

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One of simplest working models of atom developed by Niels Bohr Suggested Hs electron moves around nucleus in only certain allowed orbits Suggested Hs electron moves around nucleus in only certain allowed orbits Smaller orbit, lower energy level Smaller orbit, lower energy level Larger orbit, higher energy level Larger orbit, higher energy level Electron can have different energy levels Electron can have different energy levels Ground state Ground state: lowest level Excited state Excited state: atom gains energy 1/15/

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1/15/ Assigned quantum number,, to each orbit Assigned quantum number, n, to each orbit Electron in ground state (1 st energy level, n = 1) Electron in ground state (1 st energy level, n = 1) Does not radiate energy Does not radiate energy Quantum jump: electron moves from one energy level to another by gaining energy (excited state) or losing energy (ground state) in continuously changing amounts Quantum jump: electron moves from one energy level to another by gaining energy (excited state) or losing energy (ground state) in continuously changing amounts Electron drops from higher to lower energy orbit Electron drops from higher to lower energy orbit Photon with specific energy emitted as light Photon with specific energy emitted as light Shown as different colored line spectrums (atomic spectrum) Shown as different colored line spectrums (atomic spectrum) Every element has its own Every element has its own

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Atomic emission spectrum (amount of electromagnetic radiation of each frequency gas emits when heated/excited) Atomic emission spectrum (amount of electromagnetic radiation of each frequency gas emits when heated/excited) Photon hits metal, is absorbed as electron takes up energy Photon hits metal, is absorbed as electron takes up energy Einstein deduced each photon possesses energy Einstein deduced each photon possesses energy Different metals require different minimum frequencies for electrons to exhibit photoelectric effect Different metals require different minimum frequencies for electrons to exhibit photoelectric effect Above threshold frequency, # electrons ejected depend on intensity of light Above threshold frequency, # electrons ejected depend on intensity of light If photons frequency below minimum, electron remains bound to metal surface If photons frequency below minimum, electron remains bound to metal surface 1/15/

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1/15/ Fe

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1/15/ E photon = nh ν n = # photons h = Planck's constant, x J·s ν = frequency of radiation Convert wavelength from nanometers to meters: 1 x meters = 1 nm swf?chapter=chapter_03&folder=emission_absorption

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1/15/ Groups of lines observed in emission spectrum of hydrogen atoms UV visible IR IR IR

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1/15/ Calculate the energy of a photon of yellow light with a frequency of 5.09 x 1014 s-1. Calculate the energy of a photon of yellow light with a frequency of 5.09 x 1014 s-1. E= nhn = (1)(6.626 x J.s)(5.09 x s-1)= 3.37 x J E= nhn = (1)(6.626 x J.s)(5.09 x s-1)= 3.37 x J Calculate the energy of a photon of wavelength 5.00 x 10 4 nm (infrared). Calculate the energy of a photon of wavelength 5.00 x 10 4 nm (infrared). E = nhn = nhc/l = (1)(6.626 x J·s)(3.00 x 10 8 m/s) E = nhn = nhc/l = (1)(6.626 x J·s)(3.00 x 10 8 m/s) (5.00 x m) (5.00 x m) = 3.98 x J Calculate energy of mole of photons of yellow light with a frequency of 5.09 x s-1. Calculate energy of mole of photons of yellow light with a frequency of 5.09 x s-1. E = nhn = (6.022 x )(6.626 x J·s) (5.09 x s -1 ) E = nhn = (6.022 x )(6.626 x J·s) (5.09 x s -1 ) = 2.03 x 10 5 J

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1/15/ What is the frequency in hertz of blue light having a wavelength of 425 nm? What is the frequency in hertz of blue light having a wavelength of 425 nm? 7.06 X Hz 7.06 X Hz A certain substance strongly absorbs infrared light having a wavelength of 6,500 nm. What is the frequency in hertz of this light? A certain substance strongly absorbs infrared light having a wavelength of 6,500 nm. What is the frequency in hertz of this light? 4.62 X Hz 4.62 X Hz Yellow light has a wavelength of 600 nm. What is its frequency in hertz? Yellow light has a wavelength of 600 nm. What is its frequency in hertz? 5.00 X Hz 5.00 X Hz Green light has a wavelength of 550 nm. What is its frequency in hertz? Green light has a wavelength of 550 nm. What is its frequency in hertz? 5.45 X Hz 5.45 X Hz

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1/15/ Intense microwaves have a frequency of 9.5 X Hz. What is the wavelength of these particular microwaves? Intense microwaves have a frequency of 9.5 X Hz. What is the wavelength of these particular microwaves? 3.16 X m = mm = 316 micrometers = 3.16 X 10 5 nm 3.16 X m = mm = 316 micrometers = 3.16 X 10 5 nm Infrared waves can be seen if you look down the railroad tracks or a road on a hot day. They heat the air as they go past causing the air to refract or bend the light. If infrared rays of 9.75 X Hz are being reflected off the tracks or road what will be the size of the wavelengths in micrometers? Infrared waves can be seen if you look down the railroad tracks or a road on a hot day. They heat the air as they go past causing the air to refract or bend the light. If infrared rays of 9.75 X Hz are being reflected off the tracks or road what will be the size of the wavelengths in micrometers? 3.08 X m = 3.08 micrometers 3.08 X m = 3.08 micrometers A sunbather forgot their sunblock. On the beach they get a unheathy dose of UV radiation of 5.66 X Hz. What is the wavelength of these particular UV waves? A sunbather forgot their sunblock. On the beach they get a unheathy dose of UV radiation of 5.66 X Hz. What is the wavelength of these particular UV waves? 5.30 X m = 5.00 nm 5.30 X m = 5.00 nm

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1/15/ Sodium vapor lamps are used to sometimes light streets. If the frequency of the light coming from them is 5.09 X Hz what is the energy in each photon? Sodium vapor lamps are used to sometimes light streets. If the frequency of the light coming from them is 5.09 X Hz what is the energy in each photon? 3.37 X J/photon 3.37 X J/photon What is the energy of each photon of red light that has a frequency of 4.0 X Hz? What is the energy of each photon of red light that has a frequency of 4.0 X Hz? 2.65 X J/photon 2.65 X J/photon Calculate the energy in joules/photon for green light having a wavelength of 550 nm. Calculate the energy in joules/photon for green light having a wavelength of 550 nm X J/photon 3.62 X J/photon

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1/15/ Microwaves are used to heat food in microwave ovens. The microwave radiation is absorbed by moisture in the food. This heats the water, and as water becomes hot, so does the food. How many photons having a wavelength of 3.00 mm would have to be absorbed by 1.00 g of water to raise its temperature by 1 o C? Microwaves are used to heat food in microwave ovens. The microwave radiation is absorbed by moisture in the food. This heats the water, and as water becomes hot, so does the food. How many photons having a wavelength of 3.00 mm would have to be absorbed by 1.00 g of water to raise its temperature by 1 o C? 6.63 X J/photon; 6.31 X photons 6.63 X J/photon; 6.31 X photons The wavelengths of X-rays are much shorter than those of ultraviolet or visible light. Show quantitatively why continued exposure to X-rays is more damaging than exposure to sunlight. The wavelengths of X-rays are much shorter than those of ultraviolet or visible light. Show quantitatively why continued exposure to X-rays is more damaging than exposure to sunlight. X-rays: 6.63 X J/photon, UV rays: 6.63 X J/photon, X-rays are 100 times more powerful than UV rays. X-rays: 6.63 X J/photon, UV rays: 6.63 X J/photon, X-rays are 100 times more powerful than UV rays.

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Flame Tests Prepare 0.5 M solutions of barium/calcium/potassium lithium/sodium/ and strontium chloride (nitrates can be used). Prepare 0.5 M solutions of barium/calcium/potassium lithium/sodium/ and strontium chloride (nitrates can be used). Fold the end of a nichrome or platinum wire into a ball and tap the straight end to a wooden stick. Fold the end of a nichrome or platinum wire into a ball and tap the straight end to a wooden stick. Dip the end into dilute hydrochloric acid, hold it in the burner until no color shows. Dip the end into dilute hydrochloric acid, hold it in the burner until no color shows. Dip the end into a test tube of one of the solutions, place it in the flame, record color on chart. Dip the end into a test tube of one of the solutions, place it in the flame, record color on chart. 1/15/

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Homework: Read 5.1, pp Read 5.1, pp Q pg. 126, #8-10 Q pg. 126, #8-10 Q pp , #33, 36, 37, 65, 66, 70, 71, 74, 76 Q pp , #33, 36, 37, 65, 66, 70, 71, 74, 76 1/15/

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1/15/ By the mid-1920s, scientists convinced Bohr atomic model was incorrect, formulated new explanations of how electrons arranged in atoms de Brogliede Broglie (de-broy-lee) 1924 If light could act as both particles and waves, so could electrons Since energy E of photon equals Plancks constant times frequency f, or E = hf, momentum p of electron would equal Plancks constant divided by wavelength

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Heisenbergs Uncertainty Principle applied de Broglies hypothesis Impossible to determine with perfect accuracy both position and momentum of particle simultaneously Impossible to determine with perfect accuracy both position and momentum of particle simultaneously Making measurements on object alters location/ momentum enough to disturb accuracy of reading location/momentum Making measurements on object alters location/ momentum enough to disturb accuracy of reading location/momentum More certain we are about particle's position, less certain we are about its velocity, and vice versa More certain we are about particle's position, less certain we are about its velocity, and vice versa Bohr ran into trouble because he tried to predict electrons movement too precisely Bohr ran into trouble because he tried to predict electrons movement too precisely Restricting electron to certain locations and having it move in orbits violated Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Restricting electron to certain locations and having it move in orbits violated Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 1/15/

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Is light a wave or a particle? Electromagnetic radiation has dual "personality Electromagnetic radiation has dual "personality Acts like waves/photons with no mass Acts like waves/photons with no mass Displays behaviors characteristic of any wave (reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, exhibits Doppler effect) that would be difficult to explain with pure particle-view Displays behaviors characteristic of any wave (reflection, refraction, diffraction, interference, exhibits Doppler effect) that would be difficult to explain with pure particle-view 1/15/

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Principles of Quantum Mechanics (Schr ö dinger) Equation contains both wave and particle terms Equation contains both wave and particle terms Electrons do not have planetary orbit Electrons do not have planetary orbit Location of electron is probability, not certain position Location of electron is probability, not certain position 1/15/

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Quantum Theory Describes mathematically wave properties of electrons and other very small particles Describes mathematically wave properties of electrons and other very small particles Cloud shapes now called orbitals Cloud shapes now called orbitals 3-D region around nucleus that indicates probable location of electron (probability regions) 3-D region around nucleus that indicates probable location of electron (probability regions) Electrons not confined to fixed circular path Electrons not confined to fixed circular path 1/15/

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Quantum numbers Specify properties of atomic orbitals/electrons in orbitals Specify properties of atomic orbitals/electrons in orbitals 1 st 3 from Schrödinger equation (main energy level, shape, and orientation of orbital) 1 st 3 from Schrödinger equation (main energy level, shape, and orientation of orbital) 4 th is spin quantum number 4 th is spin quantum number Electrons have specific energy levels (1 st, 2 nd ) Electrons have specific energy levels (1 st, 2 nd ) Different energy levels associated w/different orbits Different energy levels associated w/different orbits Those nearer nucleus have lower energy than those farther away Those nearer nucleus have lower energy than those farther away Electrons cannot exist between energy levels Electrons cannot exist between energy levels 1/15/

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Quantization of energy Place a ball at the top of the stairs and roll it gently toward the flight of stairs. Place a ball at the top of the stairs and roll it gently toward the flight of stairs. Observe the motion and intermittent resting points of the ball as it moves down the stairs. Observe the motion and intermittent resting points of the ball as it moves down the stairs. What is its final resting place on one step analogous to? What is its final resting place on one step analogous to? Toss a small ball toward the top of the stairs with as little spin as possible. Toss a small ball toward the top of the stairs with as little spin as possible. Where does it come to rest? What happens if you throw it harder (use more energy)? Where does it come to rest? What happens if you throw it harder (use more energy)? What is the amount of energy you use analagous to? What is the amount of energy you use analagous to? 1/15/

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Principal Quantum Number, n Main energy level occupied by electron/ size of orbital Main energy level occupied by electron/ size of orbital As n becomes larger, atom becomes larger and electron is further away from nucleus As n becomes larger, atom becomes larger and electron is further away from nucleus 1/15/

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1/15/ Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, and z axes) as frame of reference; nucleus located at origin Cartesian coordinate system (x, y, and z axes) as frame of reference; nucleus located at origin Boundary surface diagrams: volume of space that encloses 90% probability of finding electron within orbitals boundary surfaces Boundary surface diagrams: volume of space that encloses 90% probability of finding electron within orbitals boundary surfaces

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Azimuthal Quantum Number, l (angular momentum) Shape of cloud Shape of cloud Divides shells into subshells (sublevels) ( l ) in each principal energy level ( l = n-1) Divides shells into subshells (sublevels) ( l ) in each principal energy level ( l = n-1) 1/15/ n = 1, 1 sublevel (s) n = 2, 2 sublevels (p) n = 3, 3 sublevels (d) n = 4, 4 sublevels (f) n = 1, 1 sublevel (s) n = 2, 2 sublevels (p) n = 3, 3 sublevels (d) n = 4, 4 sublevels (f)

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Magnetic Quantum Number, m l (effect of different orientations of orbitals 1 st observed in presence of magnetic field) Divides subshell into orbitals which hold electrons Divides subshell into orbitals which hold electrons Specifies 3-D orientation of each orbital around nucleus Specifies 3-D orientation of each orbital around nucleus 1/15/

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1/15/ Each orbital has specific # sublevels Each orbital has specific # sublevels s has 1 sublevel s has 1 sublevel p has 3 sublevels ( px, py, pz ) p has 3 sublevels ( px, py, pz ) d has 5 sublevels ( dxy, dyz, dxz, dx 2 -y 2, dz 2 ) d has 5 sublevels ( dxy, dyz, dxz, dx 2 -y 2, dz 2 ) f has 7 sublevels f has 7 sublevels

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Magnetic Quantum Number, m s (spin quantum number) Specifies orientation of spin axis of electron Specifies orientation of spin axis of electron Creates magnetic field because it spins, oriented in one of two directions Creates magnetic field because it spins, oriented in one of two directions Pairs (diamagnetic) not attracted to magnets Pairs (diamagnetic) not attracted to magnets Unpaired (paramagnetic) weakly attracted to magnets Unpaired (paramagnetic) weakly attracted to magnets 1/15/

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1/15/ Each sublevel can contain maximum of two electrons Each sublevel can contain maximum of two electrons s has lowest energy (max 2 electrons) s has lowest energy (max 2 electrons) p (max 6) p (max 6) d (max 10) d (max 10) f has highest energy (max 14) f has highest energy (max 14) Must have opposite spins Must have opposite spins 1 st electron to fill orbital has a /+ spin 1 st electron to fill orbital has a /+ spin 2 nd electron to fill the orbital has a /- spin 2 nd electron to fill the orbital has a /- spin You can use /, N/S, +/- You can use /, N/S, +/-

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Homework: Read 5.2, pp Read 5.2, pp Q pg. 134, #13, 15, 16 Q pg. 134, #13, 15, 16 Q pg. 146, #42, 45, 49, 52, 56, Q pg. 146, #42, 45, 49, 52, 56, 1/15/

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Aufbau (building up in German) principle: each electron occupies lowest energy orbital available 1. All orbitals related to energy sublevel are of equal energy (All three 2p orbitals are of equal energy) 2. Sublevels w/in principal energy level have diff. energies (Three 2p orbitals are of higher energy than 2s orbital) 3. In order of increasing energy, sequence of energy sublevels within principal energy level is s, p, d, and f 4. Orbitals within one principal energy level can overlap orbitals related to energy sublevels within another principal level (Orbital related to atoms 4s sublevel has lower energy than five orbitals related to 3d sublevel) 1/15/

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1/15/ s 2s2p 3s3p3d 4s4p4d4f 5s5p5d5f 6s6p6d6f 7s7p7d7f

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Pauli exclusion principle -atomic orbital has at most 2 electrons No more than 2 electrons, each with opposing spin ( ), can be located in energy level No more than 2 electrons, each with opposing spin ( ), can be located in energy level No two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers No two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers If 1 energy level is available, then 2 electrons can be accommodated If 1 energy level is available, then 2 electrons can be accommodated 1/15/

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1/15/ nlm Subshell notation # orbitals in subshell # electrons needed to fill subshell Total # electrons in subshell 1001s1 2 (± ½) s ,0,12p s ,0,13p ,-1,0,1,23d s ,0,14p ,-1,0,1,24d ,-2,-1,0,1,2,34f71432

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1/15/ RIGHT WRONG Hunds rule Hunds rule: Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by 2 nd electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have same spin

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1/15/ Exceptions to electron configuration rules Half filled 4s and 3d is more stable than expected electron configuration Half filled 4s and 3d is more stable than expected electron configuration 1 expected observed

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Electron Configurations of Ions 1. Which of the following sets of atomic number and configuration represent the ground state electron configuration of an atom or ion? State which atom or ion it is. a) A = 8, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 b) A = 11, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 c) A = 14, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 d) A = 22, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 1. Which of the following sets of atomic number and configuration represent the ground state electron configuration of an atom or ion? State which atom or ion it is. a) A = 8, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 b) A = 11, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 c) A = 14, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 d) A = 22, 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 2. Write the correct electron configurations for: a) Pb 4+ b) S 2- c) Fe 3+ d) Zn Write the correct electron configurations for: a) Pb 4+ b) S 2- c) Fe 3+ d) Zn 2+ 1/15/

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3. Give the electron configurations for the following transition metal ions: a) Sc 3+ b) Cr 2+ c) Ag 1+ d) Ni Give the electron configurations for the following transition metal ions: a) Sc 3+ b) Cr 2+ c) Ag 1+ d) Ni Of the following species (Sc 0, Ca 2+, Cl 0, S 2-, Ti 3+ ), which are isoelectric? 4. Of the following species (Sc 0, Ca 2+, Cl 0, S 2-, Ti 3+ ), which are isoelectric? 5. Identify the group containing the element composed of atoms whose last electron: a) enters and fills and 's' subshell. b) enters but does not fill an 's' subshell. c) is the first to enter a 'p' subshell. d) is the next to the last in a given 'p' subshell. e) enters and fills a given 'p' subshell. f) is the first to enter a 's' subshell. g) half fills a 'd' subshell. 5. Identify the group containing the element composed of atoms whose last electron: a) enters and fills and 's' subshell. b) enters but does not fill an 's' subshell. c) is the first to enter a 'p' subshell. d) is the next to the last in a given 'p' subshell. e) enters and fills a given 'p' subshell. f) is the first to enter a 's' subshell. g) half fills a 'd' subshell. 6. Write the electron configuration for argon. Name two positive and two negative ions that have this configuration. 6. Write the electron configuration for argon. Name two positive and two negative ions that have this configuration. 1/15/

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1. a) oxygen as a neutral atom b) lithium as a +1 ion c) silicon as a +2 ion d) titanium as a +2 ion 1. a) oxygen as a neutral atom b) lithium as a +1 ion c) silicon as a +2 ion d) titanium as a +2 ion 2. a) Pb 4+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 8 b) S 2- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 c) Fe 3+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 3 d) Zn 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 8 2. a) Pb 4+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 8 b) S 2- 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 c) Fe 3+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 3 d) Zn 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 8 3. a) Sc 3+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 b) Cr 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 2 c) Ag 1+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 0 4d 10 d) Ni 3+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 3. a) Sc 3+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 b) Cr 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 2 c) Ag 1+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 0 4d 10 d) Ni 3+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 5 4. Ca 2+ and S 2- have the same electronic configuration with 18 electrons each. 4. Ca 2+ and S 2- have the same electronic configuration with 18 electrons each. 5. a) The alkali earth metals b) The alkali metals c) The boron group d) The halogens e) The noble gases f) The alkali metals g) The manganese group 5. a) The alkali earth metals b) The alkali metals c) The boron group d) The halogens e) The noble gases f) The alkali metals g) The manganese group 6. 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 = Ar = S -2, Cl -1, K +1 and Ca s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 = Ar = S -2, Cl -1, K +1 and Ca +2 1/15/

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Homework: Read 5.3, pp Q pg. 141, #25, 27 Q pp , #60, 64, 78 a/d, 79 a-d, 80 a/c/f Test practice, pg. 149, all questions Use link for quiz and submit as before. e/science.php?qi=520 e/science.php?qi=520 1/15/

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