Presentation on theme: "A National Crisis: The State of Computer Science and Information Technology in Schools and Future Workforce Projections Joe Kmoch firstname.lastname@example.org Milwaukee."— Presentation transcript:
1A National Crisis: The State of Computer Science and Information Technology in Schools and Future Workforce Projections Joe Kmoch Milwaukee Public Schools May 3, 2013
2Session DescriptionThis session will explore the trends in the workforce for computing specialists as defined by the U.S. Department of Labor, and look at the pipeline to fill the nearly 1.5 million positions that will be coming available over the next six to eight years. Then we’ll look at approaches to deal with this problem along with resources available.
3Three ChallengesThe computing community in the US faces three significant and interrelated challenges in maintaining a robust IT workforceUnderproductionUnderrepresentationLack of a presence in K-12 education(Jan Cuny, NSF CS10K Initiative)
5Snapshot: U.S. Employment through 2020 Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing4.6+ million employed in computing in 20201.5 million computing job openings through 2020(0.8 million newly created and 0.7 replacement jobs)PERCENTAGE OF STEM JOBS IN COMPUTING49% of all (new and replacement) STEM jobs are in computing62% of new STEM jobs are in computing40% of replacement STEM jobs are in computingSource: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at
6Quick Facts about Computing Jobs Though 2020 Computing and mathematics is one of theTOP 10 fastest growing major occupational groups150,000+ job openings in computing annually.1 in every 2 STEM jobs will be in computing in 2020.Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing1 in every 10 job openings in all occupationsrequiring at least a Bachelor’s degree is in computing.That will become even more favorable in 2020.85% of computing job openings requireat least a Bachelor’s degree.91% of computing jobs require some type of post-secondary education.1 in every 2 non-medical STEM job openingsrequiring at least a Bachelor’s degreewill be in computing.Sources: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at Educational levels are calculated from BLS Occupational Projections Data, Employment , available at and the BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook , available at
7U.S. Employment through 2020 How Computing Stacks Up To Healthcare Growth Rates22% job growth ratein computing jobs, as comparable to healthcare job growth rates51,000 projected shortfallin qualified health IT workers90% of physiciansto use electronic health records by 2019 as a result of the federal HITECH Act of 2009.Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computingHITECH Act of 2009 = Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health ActShortages of healthcare computing professionals. Necessary to enhance productivity, improve quality of care and patient safety, medical records, medical advancements, etc.Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Blog on “UBT Program: Preparing the Health IT Leaders of Tomorrow, Today,” (May 12, 2011), available at Congressional Budget Office, Analysis of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, available at----U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) “projected shortfall of approximately 51,000 qualified health IT workers over the next four years” i.e. 51,000 trained post-Bachelor’s in degree or certification program. HHS Health IT Workforce Development Program funded by the Recovery Act and HITECH Act“The $2.3 billion US HIS market is expected to grow at a CAGR of nearly 12% and exceed $5.1 billion by The expected double digit growth in the US HIS market is the result of the healthcare reform initiatives brought in by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, a part of the $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of The HITECH Act, signed into law by President Obama in February 2009, allocated up to $27 billion in stimulus funds to accelerate health IT adoption. The reforms brought in by the Act have already provided a significant impetus to the process of healthcare reform through its mandated adoption targets of certified Electronic Health Record (EHR) technology by 90% of physicians and 70% of hospitals by 2019.”* Healthcare practitioners and techniciansSources: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), HITECH Programs, Congressional Budget Office, Analysis of HITECH Act of 2009.
9Total Employment in STEM in 2020 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computingNote on defining STEMNSF-sponsored STEM scholarships are open to those in the following disciplines:biological sciences (except medicine and other clinical fields);physical sciences, including physics, chemistry, astronomy, and materials science;mathematical sciences;computer and information sciences;geosciences;engineering;technology areas associated with the preceding fields (for example, biotechnology, chemical technology, engineering technology, information technology, etc.)NSF considers medical / healthcare as “STEM-related” (funding activities by NIH)BLS did not include healthcare or medical jobs in its 2011 report on STEM occupations. BLS considers 97 occupations to be within the definition of “STEM” but excluded managers.U.S. Department of Education in its 2009 report defines STEM as STEM fields, as defined here, include mathematics; natural sciences (including physical Sciences and biological/agricultural sciences); engineering/engineering technologies; and computer/information sciences.* Subtotals do not equal 9.2 million due to rounding.Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.
10Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Projected Annual Growth of STEM Job Openings 2010-2020 Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computingBLS defines STEM as 97 occupations in Computer, Math, Architecture, Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Social Sciences. The above graph also includes 4 additional managerial categories: (1) CS managers, (2) engineering managers, (3) national sciences managers, and (4) “social and community service” managers. Thus, there are 101 total occupations used to calculate annual STEM jobs above.Using the BLS Employment Projections , the 101 STEM occupations are 5.5% of all jobs nationwide. CS jobs currently are 2.7% of all jobs nationwide.During , computing jobs will constitute more than 1 in every 2 STEM jobs. [Does that number increase for jobs requiring a bachelor’s degree?]Social sciences, according to BLS, includes anthropologists, archeologists, economists, geographers, political science, psychologists, urban planners, and other social scientists.Physical sciences, according to BLS, includes astronomers, atmospheric, chemists, geological, hydrologists, materials, and other physical sciences.Life sciences, according to BLS, includes agricultural, animal, biochemists, biophysicists food, conservation, foresters, microbiology, plant, and soil. BLS INCLUDES epidemiologists and medical scientists, will include also in MEDICAL, in later slides.Engineering, according to BLS, architects, aerospace, chemical, civil, electrical, environmental, industrial, marine, materials, mechanical, mining, nuclear, drafters, and technicians. BLS INCLUDES IN ENGINEERING BUT INCLUDED IN CS & MATH in ABOVE GRAPH – [computer hardware engineers, 2290 annual job openings (<1% of STEM jobs)]Computing and Mathematics, according to BLS, includes developers & programmers, database administrators, network, information security, network, and support specialists. Math includes actuaries, mathematicians, research, statisticians, and technicians.Using May 2011 data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, STEM jobs are 6% of all jobs nationwide. CS jobs are 2.7% of all jobs nationwide.Note: NSF considers medical as STEM-related. Treated separately on other slides.* STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at
11Computing and Mathematics is the ONLY STEM category Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Annual STEM Degrees (2009) and Annual STEM Job Openings ( )Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computingComputing and Mathematics is the ONLY STEM categoryin which job demand exceeds and will continue to exceed trained/skilled supply.Consistent with NSF and BLS definitions, STEM includes non-medical degrees and occupations.Sources: Degree data are calculated from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Science and Engineering Indicators 2012, available at Annual jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical degrees and occupations.
12Largest STEM Occupations in 2020 Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Top 10 STEM Occupations by Total Employment in 2020Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computingLargest STEM Occupations in 2020All categories --- except computer support specialists --- require a Bachelor’s degree.Computer support specialists will be 20% of computing and mathematics occupations in 2020.Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.
13By the Numbers: Future Workforce (2010-2020 projections) Expected Growth in jobs is very high in CS/IT and EngineeringCS/IT (us dept of labor: )2010 actual: 3,426,0002020 projected: 4,184,700Engineers (us dept of labor: )2010 actual: 1,519,0002020 projected: 1,679,400
14By the Numbers: Future Workforce (2010-2020 projections) CS/IT, +22%, 758,800 new jobsSoftware Developers & Programmers, +25%Computer System Analysts, +22%Database Sys Admins & Network Arch, +28%Computer Support Specialists, +18%Security Analyst, Web Dev, CS Res, others, +15%Engineers, +11%, 160,400 new jobs
15By the Numbers: Future Workforce (2010-2020 projections) CS/IT, (758.8 growth repl)Software Dev & Prog, (314.6 gr repl)Computer System Analysts, (120.4 gr repl)DB Sys Admins & Network Arch, (130.6 gr repl)Comp Support Specialists, (110.0 gr repl)Security Analyst, Web Dev, CS Res, others, (83.3 gr repl)Engineers, (160.4 growth, repl.)
17Major Occupational Group Where the U.S. Jobs Will Be Top 10 Major Occupational Groups and Average Salaries in May 2011Major Occupational Group% Growth2011 AverageAnnual Salary1Healthcare Support Occupations35%$27,3702Personal Care and Service Occupations27%$24,6203Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations26%$72,7304Community and Social Service Occupations24%$43,8305Construction and Extraction Occupations22%$44,6306Computer and Mathematical Occupations$78,7307Business and Financial Operations Occupations17%$68,7408Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations16%$67,4709Education, Training, and Library Occupations15%$50,87010Transportation and Material Moving Occupations$33,200Messaging: Increasing employment and higher earningsNational average employment growth = 14.3 %National median annual salary = $45,230Average computing salaries with managers = roughly $86,400Sources: Jobs data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at Salary data are from BLS Occupational Employment Statistics, May 2011, available at
18Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Projected Growth of Selected STEM Jobs 2010-2020 2010 Total Employment% Growth2011 AverageAnnual SalaryEngineering and Architectural Managers176,8009%$129,350Computer and Information Systems Managers307,90018%$125,660Aerospace Engineers81,0005%$103,870Software Developers, Systems and Applications913,10030%$96,250Biochemists and Biophysicists25,10031%$87,640Civil Engineers262,80019%$82,710Database Administrators110,800$77,350Environmental Scientists89,400$68,810Chemists82,2004%$74,780Anthropologists and Archeologists6,10021%$59,040Messaging: Increasing employment and higher earningsPurpose is to highlight NUMERIC (Total Employment) versus PERCENTAGE (Growth) change.Highest PaidNot in table above because they have less total employment than Aerospace Engineers and visual space is limited.Nuclear Engineers (18,430 employment; $105,160)Petroleum Engineers (30,880 employment; $138,980)Sources: Jobs data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at Salary data are from BLS Occupational Employment Statistics, May 2011, available atSTEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.
20Higher Education Pipeline in Computing Messaging: Need for increased educationData are not available for 1999.Data tables for S&E Indicators 2012,Freshman intending to Major ,Additional Resources:https://webcaspar.nsf.gov/TableBuilder?expired_dt=1#mSource: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2012 and various years, available at Data are not available from 1999.
21Higher Education Pipeline in Computing CRA Taulbee Survey Results Messaging: Need for increased educationDate are approximateThe above approximates Figures B1 and B2 in the survey.(recent archived Taulbee reports)(all available archived Taulbee reports). Note: several years do not provide information on new enrollment of Master’s and Bachelor’s students.Additional Resources:https://webcaspar.nsf.gov/TableBuilder?expired_dt=1#mSource: Computing Research Association, Taulbee Survey , available at (providing voluntary responses from Ph.D.-granting universities on new enrollments and degrees awarded in their undergraduate CS/CE programs.
22High School Advanced Placement Exams 2011 Computer ScienceMessaging: Need for increased educationTotal Exams million ,365,617Total science on graph: 1 million ,334 (23%):Computer Science 21, (2% of the sciences shown, 1% of all AP exams)Calculus 324,933Biology 179,544Statistics 138,991Physics 118,320Chemistry 116,608Environmental Science 97,799Source: College Board, Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Data 2011, available at Calculus represents the combined data of Calculus AB and BC. Physics represents the combined data of Physics B, C:Electricity and Magnetism, and C:Mechanics. Computer Science represents combined data of Computer Science A and B.
23High School Advanced Placement Exams 1997-2011 Messaging: Need for increased educationPhysics B, C: Electricity and Magnetism, and C: Mechanics, combinedCalculus AB and BC combinedComputer Science A and B combined. B is no longer offered.Total Exams 2011: 3.4 millionTotal Exams 1997: millionSource: College Board, Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Data 2011, available at Calculus represents the combined data of Calculus AB and BC. Physics represents the combined data of Physics B, C:Electricity and Magnetism, and C:Mechanics. Computer Science represents combined data of Computer Science A and B.
24High School Advanced Placement Exams 2011 MaleFemaleComputer ScienceMessaging: Need for increased educationTotal computer science exams21,139(2% of the sciences shown, 1% of all AP exams)Females4000 exams in CS(19% of all computer AP exams: average score: 2.86)Males17139 exams in CS(81% of all computer AP exams; average score: 3.15)Source: College Board, Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Data 2011, available at Calculus represents the combined data of Calculus AB and BC. Physics represents the combined data of Physics B, C:Electricity and Magnetism, and C:Mechanics. Computer Science represents combined data of Computer Science A and B.
26ConclusionK-12 computer science education will open more economic opportunities than any other subject for the 21st Century.The future is bright for students entering in this field or gaining this critical knowledge to apply to almost any field of employment.Jobs in computing are among the fastest growing of any profession and pay higher wages.Despite these opportunities, significant barriers exist to exposing students to computer science in K-12 and keeping them in the computing education pipelineWe need to address the key issues:Clarify the role and place for K-12 computer science educationLift state standards and make courses “count”Support computer science teachersAddress diversity issuesWe need to put computer science within the core of a student’s education
27That’s nice data, but so what? *Slide is from Ed LazowskaThe instructional practices and assessments discussed or shown are not an endorsement by ACM or the U.S. Department of Education.
28How did we get to where we’re at in K-12? Perceptions of CS/IT job marketPerceptions of the kind of jobs these areBudget cuttingCS/IT courses deemed expendable, not required, not mainstreamResults of schools reacting to NCLB
29How did we get to this situation in K-12? Lack of coursesLack of trained and interested teachersLack of professional development opportunitiesCost of teacher certificationNeed for development of a national curriculum similar to PLTW (including courses, prof development, marketing)focused more around computer science and computational thinking
30What can we do?Get Involved...Advocate for CS & IT
31But how??? Learn about advocacy and advising materials Use them in your classroom with studentsTalk with parentsTalk with your principal and district administratorsTalk with current studentsVisit middle school studentsDevelop workshops for pre-high school students
32Computing is the new literacy ...the ability to make digital technology do whatever, within the possible one wants it to do – to bend digital technology to one’s needs, purposes and will, just as in the present we bend words and images.--Marc Prensky, Edutopia, 1/13/2008We want and need kids to be creators not just consumers of technology
33Advocacy Small Group Activity Here’s a poster about computing careers and a Guide for Policy MakersPick one of them and get into small groupsIf you have a poster, design a classroom lesson around the poster for appropriate age level (high school)If you have the policy brochure, plan an advocacy event for a parents’ council or a school board meeting based on the brochureAfter about minutes, we’ll share out some of the results
34CSTA Both of these are from the CSTA. This is a group you should join (it’s free for individuals)Take a look at ncwitcstaresources.pbworks.comAlso csitresources.pbworks.comTake a look at csta.acm.org
35“Imagine Your Future...” brochure activity Read the brochureImagine Your Future in ComputingIn small groups, think abouthow you could use this in your schoolcreating an activity in your classroomWe’ll share ideas in about 10 minPerhaps 10 minutes
36CSTA WI-Dairyland Chapter Brand new as of January, 2013EventsA Saturday workshop (Feb) with Exploring Computer Science leaders from ChicagoA weekday student computing competition and adhoc chapter meeting (Apr)The CS/IT strand here at WMCJoin us by joining national CSTA (free)
37CS Ed WeekStarting in 2010, Computer Science Education Week will always be held during the week containing December 9 (Dec 8-14, 2013)This is the week of Grace Hopper’s birthday (December 9, 1906)to recognize the critical role of computing in today’s society and the imperative to bolster computer science education at all levels.
39NCWIT National Center for Women and Information Technology K-12 Alliance produces many materialsAward for Aspirations in ComputingCounselor materials <ncwit.org/c4c>Many other readable resources about computing, girls in computing, what courses should I be taking, best practicesSee ncwitcstaresources.pbworks.com
41NCWIT C4C materials Pathway Resources (handouts) University, Two-year College, MilitaryPosterCounselor Talking PointsComputing Education and Future Jobs: national, state and congressional district data <http://www.ncwit.org/edjobsmap>Webinar, info sheet, upcoming slideshow
44Computing in the Core Advocating for K-12 Computer Science Education Coalition of associations, corporations, scientific societies and other non-profitsAdvocate to elevate cs education to a core academic subject in K-12 educationACM, CSTA, Google, IEEE Microsoft, NCWIT, College Board, NCTM, NSTA, Oracle, SAS<http://www.computinginthecore.org>