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A National Crisis: The State of Computer Science and Information Technology in Schools and Future Workforce Projections Joe Kmoch joe@jkmoch.com Milwaukee.

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Presentation on theme: "A National Crisis: The State of Computer Science and Information Technology in Schools and Future Workforce Projections Joe Kmoch joe@jkmoch.com Milwaukee."— Presentation transcript:

1 A National Crisis: The State of Computer Science and Information Technology in Schools and Future Workforce Projections Joe Kmoch Milwaukee Public Schools May 3, 2013

2 Session Description This session will explore the trends in the workforce for computing specialists as defined by the U.S. Department of Labor, and look at the pipeline to fill the nearly 1.5 million positions that will be coming available over the next six to eight years. Then we’ll look at approaches to deal with this problem along with resources available.

3 Three Challenges The computing community in the US faces three significant and interrelated challenges in maintaining a robust IT workforce Underproduction Underrepresentation Lack of a presence in K-12 education (Jan Cuny, NSF CS10K Initiative)

4 Overview

5 Snapshot: U.S. Employment through 2020
Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing 4.6+ million employed in computing in 2020 1.5 million computing job openings through 2020 (0.8 million newly created and 0.7 replacement jobs) PERCENTAGE OF STEM JOBS IN COMPUTING 49% of all (new and replacement) STEM jobs are in computing 62% of new STEM jobs are in computing 40% of replacement STEM jobs are in computing Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at

6 Quick Facts about Computing Jobs Though 2020
Computing and mathematics is one of the TOP 10 fastest growing major occupational groups 150,000+ job openings in computing annually. 1 in every 2 STEM jobs will be in computing in 2020. Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing 1 in every 10 job openings in all occupations requiring at least a Bachelor’s degree is in computing. That will become even more favorable in 2020. 85% of computing job openings require at least a Bachelor’s degree. 91% of computing jobs require some type of post-secondary education. 1 in every 2 non-medical STEM job openings requiring at least a Bachelor’s degree will be in computing. Sources: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at Educational levels are calculated from BLS Occupational Projections Data, Employment , available at and the BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook , available at

7 U.S. Employment through 2020 How Computing Stacks Up To Healthcare
Growth Rates 22% job growth rate in computing jobs, as comparable to healthcare job growth rates 51,000 projected shortfall in qualified health IT workers 90% of physicians to use electronic health records by 2019 as a result of the federal HITECH Act of 2009. Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing HITECH Act of 2009 = Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act Shortages of healthcare computing professionals. Necessary to enhance productivity, improve quality of care and patient safety, medical records, medical advancements, etc. Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Blog on “UBT Program: Preparing the Health IT Leaders of Tomorrow, Today,” (May 12, 2011), available at Congressional Budget Office, Analysis of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, available at ---- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) “projected shortfall of approximately 51,000 qualified health IT workers over the next four years” i.e. 51,000 trained post-Bachelor’s in degree or certification program. HHS Health IT Workforce Development Program funded by the Recovery Act and HITECH Act “The $2.3 billion US HIS market is expected to grow at a CAGR of nearly 12% and exceed $5.1 billion by The expected double digit growth in the US HIS market is the result of the healthcare reform initiatives brought in by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, a part of the $787 billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of The HITECH Act, signed into law by President Obama in February 2009, allocated up to $27 billion in stimulus funds to accelerate health IT adoption. The reforms brought in by the Act have already provided a significant impetus to the process of healthcare reform through its mandated adoption targets of certified Electronic Health Record (EHR) technology by 90% of physicians and 70% of hospitals by 2019.” * Healthcare practitioners and technicians Sources: Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), HITECH Programs, Congressional Budget Office, Analysis of HITECH Act of 2009.

8 The Bright Future For Computing Jobs

9 Total Employment in STEM in 2020 Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics
Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing Note on defining STEM NSF-sponsored STEM scholarships are open to those in the following disciplines: biological sciences (except medicine and other clinical fields); physical sciences, including physics, chemistry, astronomy, and materials science; mathematical sciences; computer and information sciences; geosciences; engineering; technology areas associated with the preceding fields (for example, biotechnology, chemical technology, engineering technology, information technology, etc.) NSF considers medical / healthcare as “STEM-related” (funding activities by NIH) BLS did not include healthcare or medical jobs in its 2011 report on STEM occupations. BLS considers 97 occupations to be within the definition of “STEM” but excluded managers. U.S. Department of Education in its 2009 report defines STEM as STEM fields, as defined here, include mathematics; natural sciences (including physical Sciences and biological/agricultural sciences); engineering/engineering technologies; and computer/information sciences. * Subtotals do not equal 9.2 million due to rounding. Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.

10 Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Projected Annual Growth of STEM Job Openings 2010-2020
Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing BLS defines STEM as 97 occupations in Computer, Math, Architecture, Engineering, Life Sciences, Physical Sciences, and Social Sciences. The above graph also includes 4 additional managerial categories: (1) CS managers, (2) engineering managers, (3) national sciences managers, and (4) “social and community service” managers. Thus, there are 101 total occupations used to calculate annual STEM jobs above. Using the BLS Employment Projections , the 101 STEM occupations are 5.5% of all jobs nationwide. CS jobs currently are 2.7% of all jobs nationwide. During , computing jobs will constitute more than 1 in every 2 STEM jobs. [Does that number increase for jobs requiring a bachelor’s degree?] Social sciences, according to BLS, includes anthropologists, archeologists, economists, geographers, political science, psychologists, urban planners, and other social scientists. Physical sciences, according to BLS, includes astronomers, atmospheric, chemists, geological, hydrologists, materials, and other physical sciences. Life sciences, according to BLS, includes agricultural, animal, biochemists, biophysicists food, conservation, foresters, microbiology, plant, and soil. BLS INCLUDES epidemiologists and medical scientists, will include also in MEDICAL, in later slides. Engineering, according to BLS, architects, aerospace, chemical, civil, electrical, environmental, industrial, marine, materials, mechanical, mining, nuclear, drafters, and technicians. BLS INCLUDES IN ENGINEERING BUT INCLUDED IN CS & MATH in ABOVE GRAPH – [computer hardware engineers, 2290 annual job openings (<1% of STEM jobs)] Computing and Mathematics, according to BLS, includes developers & programmers, database administrators, network, information security, network, and support specialists. Math includes actuaries, mathematicians, research, statisticians, and technicians. Using May 2011 data from the Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) program, STEM jobs are 6% of all jobs nationwide. CS jobs are 2.7% of all jobs nationwide. Note: NSF considers medical as STEM-related. Treated separately on other slides. * STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations. Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at

11 Computing and Mathematics is the ONLY STEM category
Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Annual STEM Degrees (2009) and Annual STEM Job Openings ( ) Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing Computing and Mathematics is the ONLY STEM category in which job demand exceeds and will continue to exceed trained/skilled supply. Consistent with NSF and BLS definitions, STEM includes non-medical degrees and occupations. Sources: Degree data are calculated from the National Science Foundation (NSF), Science and Engineering Indicators 2012, available at Annual jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical degrees and occupations.

12 Largest STEM Occupations in 2020
Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Top 10 STEM Occupations by Total Employment in 2020 Messaging: Increasing employment growth for computing Largest STEM Occupations in 2020 All categories --- except computer support specialists --- require a Bachelor’s degree. Computer support specialists will be 20% of computing and mathematics occupations in 2020. Source: Jobs data are calculated from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.

13 By the Numbers: Future Workforce (2010-2020 projections)
Expected Growth in jobs is very high in CS/IT and Engineering CS/IT (us dept of labor: ) 2010 actual: 3,426,000 2020 projected: 4,184,700 Engineers (us dept of labor: ) 2010 actual: 1,519,000 2020 projected: 1,679,400

14 By the Numbers: Future Workforce (2010-2020 projections)
CS/IT, +22%, 758,800 new jobs Software Developers & Programmers, +25% Computer System Analysts, +22% Database Sys Admins & Network Arch, +28% Computer Support Specialists, +18% Security Analyst, Web Dev, CS Res, others, +15% Engineers, +11%, 160,400 new jobs

15 By the Numbers: Future Workforce (2010-2020 projections)
CS/IT, (758.8 growth repl) Software Dev & Prog, (314.6 gr repl) Computer System Analysts, (120.4 gr repl) DB Sys Admins & Network Arch, (130.6 gr repl) Comp Support Specialists, (110.0 gr repl) Security Analyst, Web Dev, CS Res, others, (83.3 gr repl) Engineers, (160.4 growth, repl.)

16 Earnings Potential in Computing

17 Major Occupational Group
Where the U.S. Jobs Will Be Top 10 Major Occupational Groups and Average Salaries in May 2011 Major Occupational Group % Growth 2011 Average Annual Salary 1 Healthcare Support Occupations 35% $27,370 2 Personal Care and Service Occupations 27% $24,620 3 Healthcare Practitioners and Technical Occupations 26% $72,730 4 Community and Social Service Occupations 24% $43,830 5 Construction and Extraction Occupations 22% $44,630 6 Computer and Mathematical Occupations $78,730 7 Business and Financial Operations Occupations 17% $68,740 8 Life, Physical, and Social Science Occupations 16% $67,470 9 Education, Training, and Library Occupations 15% $50,870 10 Transportation and Material Moving Occupations $33,200 Messaging: Increasing employment and higher earnings National average employment growth = 14.3 % National median annual salary = $45,230 Average computing salaries with managers = roughly $86,400 Sources: Jobs data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at Salary data are from BLS Occupational Employment Statistics, May 2011, available at

18 Where the STEM Jobs Will Be Projected Growth of Selected STEM Jobs 2010-2020
2010 Total Employment % Growth 2011 Average Annual Salary Engineering and Architectural Managers 176,800 9% $129,350 Computer and Information Systems Managers 307,900 18% $125,660 Aerospace Engineers 81,000 5% $103,870 Software Developers, Systems and Applications 913,100 30% $96,250 Biochemists and Biophysicists 25,100 31% $87,640 Civil Engineers 262,800 19% $82,710 Database Administrators 110,800 $77,350 Environmental Scientists 89,400 $68,810 Chemists 82,200 4% $74,780 Anthropologists and Archeologists 6,100 21% $59,040 Messaging: Increasing employment and higher earnings Purpose is to highlight NUMERIC (Total Employment) versus PERCENTAGE (Growth) change. Highest Paid Not in table above because they have less total employment than Aerospace Engineers and visual space is limited. Nuclear Engineers (18,430 employment; $105,160) Petroleum Engineers (30,880 employment; $138,980) Sources: Jobs data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Employment Projections , available at Salary data are from BLS Occupational Employment Statistics, May 2011, available at STEM is defined here to include non-medical occupations.

19 Pipeline of Talent in Computing

20 Higher Education Pipeline in Computing
Messaging: Need for increased education Data are not available for 1999. Data tables for S&E Indicators 2012, Freshman intending to Major , Additional Resources: https://webcaspar.nsf.gov/TableBuilder?expired_dt=1#m Source: National Science Foundation, Science and Engineering Indicators 2012 and various years, available at Data are not available from 1999.

21 Higher Education Pipeline in Computing CRA Taulbee Survey Results
Messaging: Need for increased education Date are approximate The above approximates Figures B1 and B2 in the survey. (recent archived Taulbee reports) (all available archived Taulbee reports). Note: several years do not provide information on new enrollment of Master’s and Bachelor’s students. Additional Resources: https://webcaspar.nsf.gov/TableBuilder?expired_dt=1#m Source: Computing Research Association, Taulbee Survey , available at (providing voluntary responses from Ph.D.-granting universities on new enrollments and degrees awarded in their undergraduate CS/CE programs.

22 High School Advanced Placement Exams 2011
Computer Science Messaging: Need for increased education Total Exams million ,365,617 Total science on graph: 1 million ,334 (23%): Computer Science 21, (2% of the sciences shown, 1% of all AP exams) Calculus 324,933 Biology 179,544 Statistics 138,991 Physics 118,320 Chemistry 116,608 Environmental Science 97,799 Source: College Board, Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Data 2011, available at Calculus represents the combined data of Calculus AB and BC. Physics represents the combined data of Physics B, C:Electricity and Magnetism, and C:Mechanics. Computer Science represents combined data of Computer Science A and B.

23 High School Advanced Placement Exams 1997-2011
Messaging: Need for increased education Physics B, C: Electricity and Magnetism, and C: Mechanics, combined Calculus AB and BC combined Computer Science A and B combined. B is no longer offered. Total Exams 2011: 3.4 million Total Exams 1997: million Source: College Board, Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Data 2011, available at Calculus represents the combined data of Calculus AB and BC. Physics represents the combined data of Physics B, C:Electricity and Magnetism, and C:Mechanics. Computer Science represents combined data of Computer Science A and B.

24 High School Advanced Placement Exams 2011
Male Female Computer Science Messaging: Need for increased education Total computer science exams 21,139 (2% of the sciences shown, 1% of all AP exams) Females 4000 exams in CS (19% of all computer AP exams: average score: 2.86) Males 17139 exams in CS (81% of all computer AP exams; average score: 3.15) Source: College Board, Advanced Placement (AP) Exam Data 2011, available at Calculus represents the combined data of Calculus AB and BC. Physics represents the combined data of Physics B, C:Electricity and Magnetism, and C:Mechanics. Computer Science represents combined data of Computer Science A and B.

25 Conclusion Possible formatting of next slide

26 Conclusion K-12 computer science education will open more economic opportunities than any other subject for the 21st Century. The future is bright for students entering in this field or gaining this critical knowledge to apply to almost any field of employment. Jobs in computing are among the fastest growing of any profession and pay higher wages. Despite these opportunities, significant barriers exist to exposing students to computer science in K-12 and keeping them in the computing education pipeline We need to address the key issues: Clarify the role and place for K-12 computer science education Lift state standards and make courses “count” Support computer science teachers Address diversity issues We need to put computer science within the core of a student’s education

27 That’s nice data, but so what?
*Slide is from Ed Lazowska The instructional practices and assessments discussed or shown are not an endorsement by ACM or the U.S. Department of Education.

28 How did we get to where we’re at in K-12?
Perceptions of CS/IT job market Perceptions of the kind of jobs these are Budget cutting CS/IT courses deemed expendable, not required, not mainstream Results of schools reacting to NCLB

29 How did we get to this situation in K-12?
Lack of courses Lack of trained and interested teachers Lack of professional development opportunities Cost of teacher certification Need for development of a national curriculum similar to PLTW (including courses, prof development, marketing) focused more around computer science and computational thinking

30 What can we do? Get Involved... Advocate for CS & IT

31 But how??? Learn about advocacy and advising materials
Use them in your classroom with students Talk with parents Talk with your principal and district administrators Talk with current students Visit middle school students Develop workshops for pre-high school students

32 Computing is the new literacy
...the ability to make digital technology do whatever, within the possible one wants it to do – to bend digital technology to one’s needs, purposes and will, just as in the present we bend words and images. --Marc Prensky, Edutopia, 1/13/2008 We want and need kids to be creators not just consumers of technology

33 Advocacy Small Group Activity
Here’s a poster about computing careers and a Guide for Policy Makers Pick one of them and get into small groups If you have a poster, design a classroom lesson around the poster for appropriate age level (high school) If you have the policy brochure, plan an advocacy event for a parents’ council or a school board meeting based on the brochure After about minutes, we’ll share out some of the results

34 CSTA Both of these are from the CSTA.
This is a group you should join (it’s free for individuals) Take a look at ncwitcstaresources.pbworks.com Also csitresources.pbworks.com Take a look at csta.acm.org

35 “Imagine Your Future...” brochure activity
Read the brochure Imagine Your Future in Computing In small groups, think about how you could use this in your school creating an activity in your classroom We’ll share ideas in about 10 min Perhaps 10 minutes

36 CSTA WI-Dairyland Chapter
Brand new as of January, 2013 Events A Saturday workshop (Feb) with Exploring Computer Science leaders from Chicago A weekday student computing competition and adhoc chapter meeting (Apr) The CS/IT strand here at WMC Join us by joining national CSTA (free)

37 CS Ed Week Starting in 2010, Computer Science Education Week will always be held during the week containing December 9 (Dec 8-14, 2013) This is the week of Grace Hopper’s birthday (December 9, 1906) to recognize the critical role of computing in today’s society and the imperative to bolster computer science education at all levels. 

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39 NCWIT National Center for Women and Information Technology
K-12 Alliance produces many materials Award for Aspirations in Computing Counselor materials <ncwit.org/c4c> Many other readable resources about computing, girls in computing, what courses should I be taking, best practices See ncwitcstaresources.pbworks.com

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41 NCWIT C4C materials Pathway Resources (handouts)
University, Two-year College, Military Poster Counselor Talking Points Computing Education and Future Jobs: national, state and congressional district data <http://www.ncwit.org/edjobsmap> Webinar, info sheet, upcoming slideshow

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44 Computing in the Core Advocating for K-12 Computer Science Education
Coalition of associations, corporations, scientific societies and other non-profits Advocate to elevate cs education to a core academic subject in K-12 education ACM, CSTA, Google, IEEE Microsoft, NCWIT, College Board, NCTM, NSTA, Oracle, SAS <http://www.computinginthecore.org>

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46 Questions? Thank you Joe Kmoch


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